Thursday, November 28, 2019
Racism is a relatively new term, invented in the modern age when man discovered science. Using his abilities to understand the natural world he began to make theories, and one of the ideas that he created is the concept of race. There are groups of men and women who were created to rule the world Ã¢â¬â they are the masters while others are the slaves. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Racism in Society specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Races were differentiated by physical characteristics and the negative implication of the analysis of physical characteristics led to prejudice, abhorrence, and even hatred towards another human being. Understanding the concept of racism can be achieved by looking at standard definition as well as using analogies such as the way that a biologist can classify different types of animals and the way a an art collector discriminates between different works of art. Before going any fur ther it is imperative to look into a scholarly definition of the term racism. There will be two academic sources that will be consulted for this study. The first one comes from WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s II New College Dictionary and from Encyclopedia Britannica online. From the college dictionary here is the first definition of the word racism: Ã¢â¬Å"The notion that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own ethnic stock is superiorÃ¢â¬ (Webster, p.912). A more lengthy definition comes from the encyclopedia and it says that it is also known as racialism and adds the following: any action, practice, or belief that reflects the racial worldview Ã¢â¬â the ideology that humans are divided into separate and exclusive biological entities called Ã¢â¬ËracesÃ¢â¬â¢, that there is a causal link between inherited physical traits and traits of personality, intellect, morality, and other cultural behavioral features, and that some races are innately superior to others (Smedley, p.1). Based on these definitions one can surmise that racism is a mindset, a belief system governed by the idea that humans were not created equal and can never be treated equal. There are groups of people that must be considered superior to others and therefore there are those that must be treated as inferior. This is based on the ideology that Ã¢â¬Å"humans are divided into separate and exclusive biological entities called racesÃ¢â¬ and thus human beings can be classified in the same way that a biologist can classify different types of animals. And an art collector discriminates between different works of art.Advertising Looking for essay on ethnicity studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It must also be highlighted that this classification of human beings can only be made possible if the basis for classification is the difference between physical characteristics. The most common method is to look at the color of the personÃ¢â¬â¢s skin as well as differenc es in facial features. But this is not only limited on what can be seen in the external features of the person, racism is also a product of observing the behavioral tendencies of a group of people such as their religious and dietary practices. By looking at the physical characteristics and the religious as well as cultural differences one can easily ascertain that others are not like them. In ancient times there used to be a derogatory term that a rich and powerful civilization used to describe others and they call those who cannot attain their level of sophistication as barbaric and they call citizens of neighboring countries whom they consider inferior to them as barbarians. As a result, Ã¢â¬Å"In North and apartheid South Africa, racism dictated that different Ã¢â¬ËracesÃ¢â¬â¢ should be segregated from one another, that they should have their own distinct communities and develop their own institution such as churches, schools, and hospitals, and that it was unnatural for memb ers of two Ã¢â¬Ëseparate racesÃ¢â¬â¢ to intermarryÃ¢â¬ (Smedley, p.1) This gave rise to the aforementioned definition of race that others believe in the innate superiority of their race and that they try to impose this worldview on others. This can be best understood in the way that a biologist looks at the natural world. A biologist will classify animals and plants based on their physical characteristics for instance a mammal is different from an insect; a grass is different from a tree. This is because of clear differentiations based on external features. It is not difficult to spot the major differences that exist between a tiger and a whale and an oak tree and a dragonfly. This is the reason why there used to be apartheid in South Africa and segregation in the United States. A classification scheme was developed not to judge animals but humans. The classification scheme was not created to identify and appreciate the differences but to create separation. Aside from a crud e analysis of the physical features there is no clear basis for pigeonholing or stereotyping human beings into different classes or sub-species. However, it is clear why this system was perpetuated. It is to create order and understanding in the same way that a biologist tries to understand the complexity of the natural world. Another way to look at racism is to look into the activities of the art collector and how he creates a standard in order to judge which artwork is much more valuable than others. This time around the basis for comparison is subjective. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Racism in Society specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are no clear rules because what a collector will consider a worthless piece of creation can be valued highly by others. In other words no one can judge and no one should judge that a group of individuals is of greater importance to other groups. This should not be the c ase but the history of mankind proves otherwise. The methodology used by an art collector is necessary to understand the worth of a artwork and as a result collectors can trade or sell what they own. If a system does not exist then art collection may never have taken off and no one would spend their time searching, examining, and storing art works. This was done to justify their actions. In the same manner, racism and the profiling of tribes, clans, and groups of people into Ã¢â¬Å"racesÃ¢â¬ was done to justify the use of slaves and the use of humans as tools. In the past slavery was a part of American society. This was made possible by the belief that the white race is superior to the Negro race and therefore those with black skin must serve the white man and the white man must no feel a tinge of guilt that they are treating their fellow human beings as if they were beasts of burden. This has created innumerable injustices, not to mention the deaths of many who tried to argue th at there is no such thing as race. One of the most ironic settings of this debate occurred in the United States when founding fathers who led the people into a successful revolution against tyranny wrote the U.S. Constitution and it says there that all men were created equal. This is the reason why they revolted against those who tried to control them and yet after the war for American independence Negro slaves were still oppressed and working the farms without wages, rights, and freedom. Conclusion Racism is the classification of human beings into groups and therefore it creates a belief system that there are those who are superior to others and those who are inferior can be treated with less respect and force to serve others. This is what happened to former Negro slaves who felt the bitter effects of segregation. The same thing can be said of the black men and women of South Africa who had to contend with the fact that the white man had created systems and institutions to perpet uate this belief and to maintain the status quo that blacks are inferior to the whites.Advertising Looking for essay on ethnicity studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Ã¢â¬Å"Racism.Ã¢â¬ Def. WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s II New College Dictionary. 2001, print. Smedley, Audrey. Ã¢â¬Å"Racism.Ã¢â¬ Encyclopaedia Britannica. Web. This essay on Racism in Society was written and submitted by user Aryanna Osborn to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Women, Inequality and Poverty essays We are concerned about the direction of Canadian equality rights jurisprudence, the positions being advanced by governments in equality rights litigation, and the apparent unwillingness of the courts to be a counterbalancing influence when governments ignore women's interests and voices. How courts treat the relationship between the right to equality and economic policy is important because of its potential impact on women. What courts say about rights also influences the understanding people have of their relations to others, and how governments view their roles and responsibilities. - Shelagh Day and Gwen Brodsky. There is a specific disconnection between the social policies that are affecting womens lives and the commitments that have been made, domestically and internationally, to the equality of women. If women are to advance then economic and social policies need connect with womens right to equality. Many Canadians are suspicious of the poor, very quick to judge men and women to be the ones at fault for their own misfortunes. There are significant differences that exist regarding the gender nature of poverty in Canada and the impact of social welfare policies on women. Many reports have shown that women continue to be more vulnerable to poverty than men (Gunderson et al. 1990; Harman 1992). This paper will give background on why women face poverty at a higher percentage than men, the issues facing women in poverty and what are the legal protections that are offered for those living in poverty in Canada. Also, I will analyze Poverty, Income Inequality, and Health in Canada by Dr. Dennic Raphael. In my opinion, if we live in a democratic country with equal rights for both genders then this issue should not exist in the first place. Poverty does not only take away a home from women and children but it is also linked to health. If poverty causes such suffering and even death then it is import...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Palliative Care in Cancer - Essay Example Palliative health care services for children in the UK are both organized and delivered differently than adult palliative care in oncology (Price, McNeilly, & McFarlane, 2005). Palliative care will usually begin initially at the diagnosis of an incurable disease and continue throughout oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life (Shaw, 2011). Palliative care will usually involve a multidisciplinary team approach and coordinators will manage and assist with symptoms and pain management along with the other aspects of medical care along with other basic needs such as financing, transportation, medical equipment, respite services for caregivers, counseling and of course easy transition to hospice services should this become necessary. Frequently palliative care is understood or thought to limit opinions available to families and patients rather than helping them to utilize the optimum clinical knowledge and tools available. Rationale 'Oncology Nurses' Personal Understandings about Palliative Care' The rationale for a literature review in palliative care in oncology is heavily supported by the number of new cases expected to be reported yearly; in 2009 alone 1,479,350 cases were expected in the United States (Mahon, and McAuley, 2010, p142). The ultimate goals of cancer treatment fall directly in line for those in palliative care; minimizing effects and alleviating the burdens of this disease. Advances in oncology treatment now means people are living longer with the disease and longer life spans with the disease previously often meant a reduced quality of life; living with the burden of pain, mental anguish and disabilities. Palliative care is now understood to be very distinct from that of hospice care and should be available to patients independent of the prognosis and diagnosis. Cancer patients live with significant burdens and because complex decisions are usual for cancer patients palliative care should be available commonly and routinely to cancer patients. It has become the standard of care for patients with cancer and serious illnesses. Though deficits remain with oncology there are two trends that heavily influence the oncologistÃ¢â¬â¢s nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions about palliative care. Many oncology nurses find it difficult to distinguish between palliative care and hospice care and oncology nurses have the unusual opportunity for being trendsetters in oncology palliative care because of the fact that each cancer patient is a good candidate for palliative care. Analysis of Available Literature on Palliative Care in Oncology 'Oncology Nurses' Perceptions of Nursing Roles and Professional Attributes in Palliative Care' Few research studies have explored the perspectives of nursing roles in palliative care (Pavlish & Ceronsky, 2009). Most research is focused on gaining insights about end of life care. Nursing support in palliative care was found to have six dimensions; connecting, valuing, empowering, doing for, assisting in finding meaning, and ensuring the preservation of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s integrity. Nursing responsibilities in the same study were described as providing comfort, responding during the death scene, enhancing personal growth, reacting to anger, enhancing the quality of life during dying, responding to colleagues and responding and interacting with the family in a supportive and professional manner. It was discovered that many nurses felt the most important aspect in palliative ca
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Strategic Change Management (Ansewr 6 questions) - Assignment Example High attrition rate and staff downsizing strategy of Airline companyÃ¢â¬â¢s crates impact on defence mechanism of Airline staff. Southwest Airlines has applied clarity system as a part of Kurt Lewins Change Management Model to decrease resistance about newly implemented software system. The company has changed existing Microsoft Excel reporting pattern by implementing Hyperion Essbase model of financial budgeting. The company did the change in order to decrease overall reporting cost. The logic model of synergy theory describes sustainable change as participation multi level actors (local and global, top level, mid level and ground level management). This model not only increases communication scope but decreases change resistance also. British Airways used Kurt LewinÃ¢â¬â¢s change management model in order to create positive impact on their business policy. In the unfreeze stage they downsized the workforce in order to decrease hierarchical levels. In the change phase British Airways altered internal system and provided incentives to absorb the shock effect. In the refreeze stage BA integrated customer satisfaction with individual objective of key members of organizational hierarchy. They refurbished uniform of staff and aircraft design as a part of change management process. The market demand for Airline industry has been dented due to sovereign debt crisis and economic recession. Airline industry has lost more than $25bn (Ã £16bn) in last ten years (Milmo, Topham, and Roberts, 2012). Companies are competing with each other in order to achieve competitive edge such as low cost service delivery, fast service delivery, expanded destination service, fleet size and many others. For example, Southwest Airlines has achieved the competitive edge of lowest fare in comparison to other players in the market. The new airline group formed by the merger is the sixth largest airline service in the world in terms of
Monday, November 18, 2019
The Importance of Entrepreneurship and Enterprise in the UK - Essay Example ameters which tend to change continuously, however when all appropriate preparation has been made, entrepreneurship can lead to a significant development of the commercial market involved. However, in order to ensure the success of their efforts, entrepreneurs should try to follow strictly the principles of the commercial market avoiding risk in cases that there are no limits for the achievement of a particular plan. The existence of alternative plan of action has to be considered as necessary in order for the entrepreneurship to survive on a long term basis. Entrepreneurship should be considered as a fundamental activity that helps the market to be developed. However, in order for this activity to lead to positive outcomes it is necessary that the participants (entrepreneurs) follow a specific plan of action which has to be characterized by the thorough analysis of the market, the appropriate design of strategic plan and the rapid reaction to the opportunities appeared. Of course in any case the existence of risk creates a series of uncertainties for any potential entrepreneurship. But if all appropriate steps of action are followed they are little chances for the entrepreneurship to end up to a failure. This paper examines the characteristics of entrepreneurship as a unique commercial activity and tries to identify all the appropriate Ã¢â¬ËqualitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ of a good entrepreneur as they can be observed both in the field of theory but also in practice. For this reason, the relevant literature review has been followed with a few examp les of successful entrepreneurs in UK as they have been evaluated and awarded in a relevant awarding scheme involving entrepreneurial activities in UK. Entrepreneurship has been defined through a variety of terms in order to respond to the needs of the market as they have been observed by theorists throughout years. At a first level, Thornton (1999, 19) refers to entrepreneurship as Ã¢â¬Ëthe creation of new organizations which occurs as a
Friday, November 15, 2019
Resort World Sentosa And Marina Bay Sands Tourism Essay Though casino was their major way to earn revenue because of high gamblers addict all over the world, both of these resorts also added wide varieties of attractions and amenities for tourist attraction such as skypark, universal studios Singapore, celebrity chefs restaurant, museums, convention and exhibition centre, floating pavilion, etc. to attract not only the gamers but also families and childrens. In total both the resorts offer 33,500sqm of MICE space and more than 4000 hotel rooms. Attractions helped in many ways such as: Universal Studios Singapore- welcomed 13.2 million visitor and 22.3 billion tourism receipts last year (STB 2012). Both resorts support more than 40,000 jobs throughout which includes wide number of sectors such as retail, FB and transportation. Approx. 22,000 employees have been hired by these integrated resorts (Michael 2012). Both the IR hope to achieve 17 million visitors a year and generate about US $21 billion by 2015 (Katie 2011). Singapores both integrated resorts have a total development investment of more than S$13 billion (Iswaran 2010). The IR helped to broaden the range of job and career opportunities for Singaporeans with the bulk of jobs in for them in areas such as theme park operation, retain and Food and Beverage, etc. Both the resorts plan to continue re-invest and enhance their attractions to appeal to visitors an visitorship trends, benchmarks with respect to similar international attractions, industry standards and so on (Israwan 2011). Since both these resorts have done wonder full things for the people as well as tourist such as giving jobs to locals or providing attractions to tourist it also have negative impact on society as gamble addicts are borrowing money from loan sharks and when they are unable to repay the loan money they abandon their wives and children so as to feed their gambling addiction that leads women into forced prostitution to feed their kids (Dinah Lee-Phua 2011). Gambling leads to bankruptcy, imprisonment, family violence/breakdown. Economic Impacts: Singapores decision to build casino-based destination resorts was in part based on that argument, that the country could not ignore the potential economic significance of the IRs as it will not only boost the tourism industry, increase jobs but also the investment of billions of dollars to the economy; in other words growth, as opposed to stagnation (Wong, 2005). Singapores economy is diversified and is not based solely on tourism or the IRs but the income certainly could be useful. Such revenue for the state or country could be used to develop infrastructure and superstructures; essentially an economic development tool for the state or country as a whole. One of the other reasons that states or territories decide to legalize gambling and thus build casinos is to attract tourists to the area. These tourism products can complement and enhance the other tourism products and thus motivate tourist to the state or territory. Tourism is one of the key sectors that contribute to the Singapore economy. The goal is to achieve SDG$30 billion in tourism receipts with 17 million visitors by 2015 (STB, 2010). Proponents of casinos or casino-based resorts argue that the gaming element will increase tourism numbers. When Singapore legalized gambling, it was to increase the demand for and motivate tourists to the island state (Remesh, 2010). Casinos had to be part of the tourism product to be of significant economic value (Eadington, 1999). Families could be attracted to such places and there will be reason for the adults to stay longer. Going by the revenues that Macau received, the argument might be valid. The demand for non-gaming products, services and amenities will subsequently go up; in essence, the casinos could be for the greater good because on the whole the economy will be better off and thus the majority of the people within the gaming jurisdiction will benefit. Social Impacts: When the decision is made to legalize gambling, a state or country will experience not just positive impacts but negative social impacts as well. Petty theft and fraud linking casino employees have arisen. Traffic jams have increased, and environmental conditions have deteriorated. Consumer spending is neither reduced nor substituted. Bankruptcy, suicides, depression, lowered productivity and crime like fraud, are most prevalent with gambling. As if costs to the community like suicides, bankruptcies and lowered productivity are not enough, 5 to 10 other people were affected for every single problem gambler, (Australian Commission, 2009). The carrying capacity of a region could affect how the locals perceive the tourists within the gaming jurisdiction. There was no conclusive evidence that crime increased as a result of the casinos. Crime rates were contained in the initial opening of the casinos due to the increase in staffing by the local law enforcement agencies. However this increase in staff could not be sustained and as a result crime rates increased over time due to the casinos. Increase of child abuse may also occur due tom negligence of guidance from the parents addicted to gambling. As parents who lose money on gambling table often end up taking their frustration out on their kids or abusing them physically. Problems of borrowing from loan sharks are seen in Singapore due to high addiction of gambling. This happens due to people losing everything on gambling table thus deterioting them financially and forcing them to borrow more from loan sharks. They were also concerned that casinos would escalate gambling addition of locals, which would create financial difficulties for families and hence effect the Singapore economy altogether. Family harmony would be affected, while the good Singapore work ethic would be compromised. Social ills would also resurface (Withiam 2011). Resort World Sentosa has led to damaging of environmental effects on the countrys physical resources, ecological resources and terrestrial ecosystem. It has also resulted in the habitat destruction, removal of airshed, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity and water contamination (EIA Abhineet 2011). Bellagio is a luxury resort and casino in Las Vegas in Nevada. It is owned by MGM Resorts International and is famed for its elegance. It has total of 3,950 rooms with three different towers and is home to the most watched and famous Cirque du Soleil aquatic production commonly referred as O. It was opened on October 15 1988 and the total cost was approx US$88 million. It has number of attractions such as Gaming room, Fountains of Bellagio, Conservatory and Botanical gardens, Gallery of Fine Art, etc. with number of famous restaurants such as Le Cirque, Circo, Picasso, etc. Political Impacts: as we all know that Las Vegas is famous for casinos and has lot of casino at a stretch but for it to operate smoothly the casino are to updated with latest trends so as to keep up with the laws in a timely manner. Bellagio has a casino license and runs over more than 50 slot machines and more than 10 tables so as to pay a certain amount in tax per table in a month so as to not violate any laws. Economic Impacts: The casino creates jobs and reduces the level of unemployment. It contributes to improvement in community and infrastructure mainly in the transportation side as well as reducing public spending. The casino development has been targeted where economic development benefits the community and jobs scarcity has been reduced (J.P.Girard 2001). With Bellagio casino being so big it has helped the locals of Las Vegas and also the foreigners to earn their livelihood by working in the casino. Because of gambling, Las Vegas has shown impressive job growth, developed into a major city with a low tax burden that many state and local governments look at with envy, and has spawned significant private and public sector investment. However society would only support this if the benefits outweighs the costs. Social Impacts: But also it has affected the economy as local residents who used to travel outside of the region and gamble now stay within the region. Local residents who used to go to restaurants now spend their money in the casino. Then the casino has no net economic benefit. Tourists who used to spend money on other activities within the region now go to a gambling facility within the region. Still casino plays an important part on society as Bellagio Las Vegas is a testament of the powerful ability of gambling to foster economic development. But casinos leave a negative impact on society causing increase in traffic congestion, increased gambling addiction, drug use and prostitution. Tourists from abroad spend more time and money within the region. It was noted that alcohol and drug use increased between gamblers due to their loss in the casino or for people seeking treatment for gambling problems. Family breakdowns and mental health issues such as depression, psychiatric disorde rs, past histories of sexual or physical abuse and low self-esteem were found among the gamblers. Due to high addiction of gambling there has been an expenditure growth in casino industry than the growth in personal income (Ricardo 2008). It has been researched and proved that profound gamblers often suffer from profound marital difficulties. Gaming has jeopardized the quality of life of individuals and families in past (Burke 2003). A lot of financial difficulties involving money, laundering, paying high interest rates on debts and suicide have been seen so far. Technology: helps Bellagio to offer more luxury, better customer service and an overall increase in customer satisfaction. Fast and easy communication service provides Bellagio with a competitive advantage compared to other hotel. Bellagios website helps the customer to give information about the latest happenings anywhere anytime. Bellagio has full range of services on their website such as customers can take virtual tour, see the rooms and make the reservation online. Environmental Impacts: a casino usually generates about 20,000 to 30,000 customer vehicles and 6,000 or more employee vehicles each day leading to air pollution due to increased traffic. With a casino comes a heavy parking demand and more congestion. It draws down scarce groundwater and also threaten endangered species. Correcting all this cost between $5.5 to$7.7 million per year leading to waste of money and resources. Though Las Vegas is commonly known as Sin City so the crime rates are expected to be high. It was noted that last year fall the crime rates including shop lifting, stealing of casino chips, etc. increased a lot due to proper security management. It was reported that last year December 14, Anthony Michael Carleo stole $1,500,000 worth of Bellagio chips from Bellagio casino and was sentenced to 35 years of imprisonment last month (Pitt 2012). So Bellagio took this this really seriously and did a stringent screening and drug test on its employees to reduce internal threats. It was also noted that there were fake Bellagio chips being sold in the local market at a reasonable price that attracted lot of people and those people even had links with the security guards of the casino so as to take the chips inside (LAPD 2008). So as to avoid all this in future a proper security system was installed in Bellagio that had its eye everywhere. Systems such as 24 hours monitored security alarm, smok e alarms in all non-smoking rooms were installed to ensure the safety of the hotel as well as the customers. Every corner of the casino had a camera with 2 control rooms to look out for thief and to ensure safety of everyone there. There was 24 hours security and the security came from the best security department in USA. Bellagio used proper safety measures in case of emergency such as fire, accidents, deaths, etc. by keeping proper safety measures such as medical kit, qualified doctors in the house, etc. with all such steps/measures. Mixed use development simply involves the addition of residential units to a standard resort concept as a part of a sometimes rather dubious way to finance the whole development (Philip 2009). Bellagio has been using it for years now and everytime when possible tries to upgrade it. It provides customer with a variety of accommodation styles, sporting and leisure activities, security, a lifestyle living experience. Bellagio attracts lot of its customer via the casino as it is home to many professional poker players due to high table limit including high stakes and also because it holds world poker tournament as well. But it does not only attract the gamblers it also succeeds in attracting non-gamblers, family and children while using mixed use development concept as it has a very famous show O by Cirque du Soleil as it has international cast of world class acrobats, divers, swimmers performing on water to create a breath taking experience for its customers. Fountains of Bellagio that is set in 8 acre man-made lake with 4.500 lights and have lot of performance for the people to enjoy at night. The conservatory and botanical gardens is a must watch as it shows five seasonal themes such as Chinese new year from January to march displaying the bromeliads and orchids as well as animal of Chinese zodiac, spring displaying varieties of tropical flower, summer, fall and winter. Along with all this Bellagio has also focused on relaxation and fitness for its customer by providing variety of spa packages along with fitness centre. It is home to many golf lovers and those who wants to learn golf can learn at a reasonable rate at Bellagio with different courses available for different needs. Bellagio is famous in Las Vegas for its nightlife as it has many bar, lounge and clubs for party animals to enjoy the sin city and have a memorable time. Bellagio offers high range of exclusive shops for gifts, accessories, jewellery and fragrances and is a must shopping place for ladies . Though Bellagio use a mixed use development concept but it also takes care of the environment by using reclaimed water and on-site power generation plant and has also constructed a 5.300 space parking garage for the employees as well as customers so as to avoid traffic congestion. In todays date it is very important for any hotel to develop sustainability plan in order to survive in the market and stay ahead of its competitor. Bellagio is committed to conservation efforts that support living in the desert. These practices extend beyond Bellagio and reach the local community by educating employees about conserving natural resources at home as well as partnering with local, eco-minded organizations (Drew 2007). Bellagio is using $70 million alone to refurbish all the guest rooms so as to make it more attractive for the guest and they are changing everything in their restaurants to the exteriors of the hotel. Bellagio has achieved sustainable development and will keep on achieving it by following four most important steps towards sustainable development that is to guide and be guided by a clear vision of sustainable development and goals to achieve highest ranking among all hotels. It reviews the whole system as well as its parts considering the well-being of soc ial, ecological and economic systems, their state as well as the direction and rate of change of that state, their parts and use of these parts. It has adopted a time horizon long enough to capture human and ecosystem time scales to know what they want to achieve and how they want to achieve and also whats best for their customers in terms of needs, necessities, etc. they take in the advice of their customers very seriously to make themselves better and also to outbeat the rest of the hotels. The employees are well trained and educated and provide ongoing support in the decision making process. Bellagio has been home to many events in the casino as well as in the clubs or lounges and has also been shown in many movies. They have kept this tradition alive by calling someone or the other every year to perform in their hotel and this year also they are doing the same but on a large scale as they are inviting the Korean pop dancer/singer PSY to perform in their casino on February 23rd s tarting around 9 pm and there would be lot of songs sung by him and his world famous song Oppa Gangnam Style. Tickets are going at 100, $200 and $300 with lots of surprises for the guest and there would be lot of games as well and the winner will get an autograph t-shirt by PSY himself and an opportunity to dance with him on the stage created in casino. Thus all this helps and will keep on helping the Bellagio hotel to remain on track and be one of the top most preferred hotel of Las Vegas in near future also.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
What is Jeet Kune Do? Simply put, it's English translation is "way of the intercepting fist." Bruce studies all types of fighting from American Boxing to Thai Kickboxing. His simple philosophy was rather than block a punch and hit back with two distinct motions, why not intercept and hit in one, fluid stroke. Fluidity was the ideal. "Try and obtain a nicely-tied package of water," Bruce would taunt. "Just like water, we must keep moving on," Inosanto reitterates. "For once water stops, it becomes stagnant." Water, Bruce would always give as an example, is the toughtest thing on Earth. It is virtually indestructable; it is soft, yet it can tear rocks apart. Move like water. Bruce dissected rigid classical disciplines and rebuilt them with fluid, po-mo improvements. "It's good but it needs restructuring," he would say. Classical techniques did not take into account the reality of street fighting. Jeet Kune Do did. It was pragmatic, reality-based, empirical- not a bunch of stances, postures and mumbo jumbo handed down from antiquity. Bruce utilized all ways but was bound by none. "Efficiency is anything that scores." Ã · What happened with the Martial Arts movie industry after the death of Bruce Lee? After Bruce's death, the Martial Arts movie industry boomed, hundreds of look-alike Bruce's began to try out to make Martial Arts movies. They even used similar names, like Bruce Le, and Bruce L...
Monday, November 11, 2019
26 preschool teachers and 8 preschool administrators drawn from 8 preschools in Kasempa and Solwezi districts constituted the sample. A total 680 preschoolers were part of the classroom environments in which naturalistic observations were conducted. The data were collected through questionnaires for preschool teachers, designed to capture preschool teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge of emergent literacy and classroom practices. Questionnaires were also administered to preschool administrators and these were designed to capture the schoolsÃ¢â¬â¢ profile on their teachers, philosophy on literacy instruction and availability of teaching and learning materials. For the naturalistic observation of actual classroom sessions, data were gathered with the aid of a Classroom Literacy Checklist. Further data were collected using semi-structured follow-up interviews to fill in any gaps from questionnaires and observations. The findings were that all the preschools investigated had low literacy support as a result of limited language and literacy opportunities for the children and paucity of learning and play materials. Lack of the preschool teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ appreciation of emergent literacy rendered them unable to fully provide environments and practices that support emergent literacy. INTRODUCTION Background: The concept emergent literacy was introduced in 1966 by a New Zealand researcher Marie Clay in her doctoral thesis entitled Emergent Reading Behaviour but the term was coined by William Teale and Elizabeth Sulzby in 1986. The term was used to describe the behaviours seen in young children whereby they imitate adultsÃ¢â¬â¢ reading and writing activities, even though the children cannot actually read and write in the conventional sense. The development of the emergent literacy perspective can be traced from the reading readiness perspective. In the four decades since ClayÃ¢â¬â¢s introduction of this term, an extensive body of research has expanded the understanding of emergent literacy. According to current research, childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literacy development begins long before they start formal instruction in elementary school; it begins at birth and continues through the preschool years even though the activities of young children may not seem related to reading and writing. Early behaviours such as Ã¢â¬Å"readingÃ¢â¬ from pictures and Ã¢â¬Å"writingÃ¢â¬ with scribbles are examples of emergent literacy and are an important part of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literacy development. With the support of parents, caregivers, early childhood educators, and teachers, as well as exposure to a literacy-rich environment, children successfully progress from emergent to conventional literacy. In other words their growth from emergent to conventional literacy is influenced by their continuing literacy development, their understanding of literacy concepts, and the efforts of parents, caregivers, and teachers to promote literacy. It proceeds along a continuum, and children acquire literacy skills in a variety of ways and at different ages. ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s skills in reading and writing develop at the same time and are interrelated rather than sequential. Educators can promote childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of reading and writing by helping them build literacy knowledge and skills through the use of engaged learning activities. As children are moving into conventional literacy, they pass through different periods of development in their efforts to become successful readers, just as they did at the emergent level. Over the past ten years, the concept of emergent literacy has gradually replaced the notion of reading readiness. Consequently, it has a significant impact on the way the teaching of literacy in early childhood programmes is approached. The theory of emergent literacy developed from research in the fields of child development, psychology, education, linguistics, anthropology, and sociology. It has virtually redefined the field of literacy and made educators, teachers, and parents aware that the term reading readiness no longer adequately describes what is happening in the literacy development of young children (Teale, 1986). Research conducted on emergent literacy indicates that support to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s emergent literacy in early childhood education facilitates easy literacy development in children. Parents, caregivers, and teachers need to ensure that young children are exposed to literacy-rich environments and receive developmentally appropriate literacy instruction. Such environments and experiences have a profound effect on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literacy development by providing opportunities and encouragement for children to become successful readers. Thus a preschool should be an environment that supports theÃ continuation of emergent literacy. In order for a preschool to promote the continuous emergence of literacy, it must be an environment where there is a high variety of authentic literacy activities. It must also be an environment that affords learners opportunities to engage in purposeful literacy activities which are acknowledged as valid literacy behaviour. In the Zambian context emergent literacy is a fairly new phenomenon. Its practice is dependent on what teachers know and believe about it and this also is dependent upon the training that preschool teachers undergo. Against the background of emergent literacy, the concern of early childhood educators should be Ã¢â¬Å"valuing the knowledge children have than with replacing it by highly dubious and narrow models of what literacy is and how it functionsÃ¢â¬ (Hall, 1989: viii). Little is known regarding literacy teaching in preschools in Zambia. This study, therefore, attempted to find out the extent to which classroom practices in preschools in Zambia, with special reference to Kasempa and Solwezi, support the continuation of emergentÃ literacy in children. Statement of the problem: Although the theory of emergent literacy has been in use for over four decades, it is not known to what extent emergent literacy is appreciated and supported in early childhood education in Zambia. While research has been conducted in other parts of the world, there has been no investigation into its practice in ZambiaÃ¢â¬â¢s preschools. Thus the problem that was being investigated was that we do not know the extent to which classroom practices in Zambian preschools, and with particular reference to Kasempa and Solwezi, support the continuation of emergent literacy in children. Objectives: This study sought to achieve the following objectives: (i) To ascertain preschool teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge of emergent literacy in children. (ii) To establish the extent to which the classroom environment supports the continuation of emergent literacy. (iii) To establish what literacy instruction programme is in place and the extent to which it supports emergent literacy. (iv) To find out teaching and learning materials that are available in preschools and the extent to which they support emergent literacy. (v) To establish classroom literacy practices that obtain in preschools and the extent to which they support emergent literacy. Significance of the study: The significance of this study was premised on the fact that it focused on one critical area of education namely early childhood education. While a lot of research has been done on the basic and high school sectors of education in Zambia, very little has been done on preschool education. It is indisputable that good early childhood education is a precursor to the other levels of education. This study sought to investigate the extent to which classroom literacy practices in early childhood education in Zambia support the continuation of emergent literacy. Such a study has not been explored before in Zambia. This study, therefore, is significant in that it might provide valuable data on early childhood teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge of emergent literacy and the extent to which classroom practices support the continuation of emergent literacy. It is hoped that such data might be useful to policy makers such as the Ministry of Education and preschool curriculum des igners. In this way, it might provide data on which future curricula for early childhood educatorsÃ¢â¬â¢ training can be based. It is also hoped that the study will stimulate further research into emergent literacy practices in Zambian preschools, which is currently lacking. METHODOLOGY Research design: This study was qualitative as the researcher sought to interpret his observations and the respondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ views to establish the extent to which practices in the target preschools support the continuation of emergent literacy. However, the study also employed some quantitative elements in the design. The study was also naturalistic because there was no systematic manipulation of any process during observation. Rather the researcher observed live classroom practices in the preschools as the teachers and learners went about with their activities. Sample size: The sample for the study was drawn from eight preschools in theÃ two study areas, namely Kasempa and Solwezi Districts in North-western Province. The sample size comprised 26 preschool teachers and 8 preschool administrators. 680 preschoolers were part of the classroom environments where the naturalistic observations took place. The sample structure for the preschool teachers is presented below as Table 1: Highest Qualification Males Female Total Untrained Certificate Diploma Primary Certificate Totals TeacherÃ¢â¬â¢s (Table 1): Sample Structure for Preschool Teachers in the Study Areas 5 Sampling techniques: Samples were chosen on a non-probability basis on the understanding that respondents would be available, easy to access and ready to participate in the study. As such and convenient and purposive samplings were used. This is because the researcher selected samples according to what was logistically convenient and feasible. Bearing in mind the period in which the study was to be undertaken, the preschools that were selected were those that were not in hard-to-reach areas. This was in line with Ghosh (2006) who says convenience sampling is used when the universe is not defined and when administrative limitations make it difficult for the researcher to randomly select samples. Since purposive sampling is used to target a group of subjects a researcher believes to be reliable for a study (Kombo and Tromp, 2006), in this study it was used to select the eight schools in the study area. The use of this sampling technique was aimed at ensuring that only well-established preschools were targeted. Data collection: Three instruments were used to collect data. The Classroom Literacy Checklist was used as a classroom observation instrument. It was used to check for classroom practices in terms of literacy-richness of the environment, reading practices, variety of literacy activities, authenticity of literacy activities and teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ usage of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge of literacy. It was adapted from other literacy observation checklists such as the KS1 Format and the National Centre for Learning Disabilities 2004 Literacy Environment Checklist developed by Groover J. Whitehurst (Ph.D.). These observation instruments are designed to assess whether literacy environments in preschools provide a range of quality literacy experiences and a print-rich environment which are important factors in the facilitation and support of literacy learning. Two types of questionnaire were used, one for teachers and the other for administrators. The questionnaires for the teachers sought to elicit information on their training and knowledge of emergent literacy. The questionnaires for the administrators sought to elicit information on the school profile, instructional materials and the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s ethos on literacy development. Questionnaires were given on the first day of research at each preschool. The idea was to give respondents three to five days of answering the questionnaire, based on findings from the pilot test. Interviews were conducted with teachers and administrators as follow-ups to help fill in gaps or clarify any matters from 6Ã questionnaires and observations. For the teachers these were done soon after each observation. For administrators these were conducted at least twice in each school, one of which was on the last day of the research at each particular preschool. Data analysis: Since this study was mainly qualitative, data analysis (particularly preprocessing) began during the data collection stage. During lesson observations the researcher made class profiles by recording the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s level, age range and enrolment. The researcher was also doing a dairy on each lesson observed. Another thing the researcher did at this stage was to ensure that the data were internally consistent. For example, the researcher would make follow-ups with informants to clarify any contradictions and gaps in the questionnaires or interviews. Data preparation then followed and this included summarizing and organizing the data according to categories. At the final stage theÃ researcher sought to make interpretations of the questionnaire responses, obs ervations and interview responses. FINDINGS This study sought to find out the extent to which classroom practices in preschools support emergent literacy. The study relied mainly on naturalistic observations of live classroom sessions but this was complemented by questionnaires and follow-up interviews. Below is a discussion of the specific findings, divided into five sections, each discussing the findings in relation to each of the five objectives of the study. Preschool TeachersÃ¢â¬â¢ Knowledge of Emergent Literacy: The study has revealed that none of respondents had ever heard of the term Ã¢â¬Ëemergent literacyÃ¢â¬â¢. In spite of this, the findings have also revealed that all the respondents have noticed elements of emergent literacy in children when they just enter preschool. The study has further shown that respondents have high awareness levels of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s emergent literacy behaviours. However, the study has also revealed that generally, the respondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ appreciation of the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s emergen t literacy was very poor. One area major area where this was evident was with regard to knowing how to reinforce childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s display of emergent literacy (for 7Ã example if a child got a book and began to turn pages or if a child stood up and began to Ã¢â¬ËreadÃ¢â¬â¢ around the room). This apparent disparity between the respondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ high awareness of emergent literacy behaviours and their low appreciation of emergent literacy can be attributed to the respondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ training. It was clear that preschool teachers are not taught about emergent literacy, hence the respondents did not regard emergent literacy behaviours as a developmental stage in literacy learning. Generally all the respondents tended to subscribe to the reading readiness perspective. In relation to the purpose of the study, these findings suggest that preschool teachers in the study areas cannot provide the necessary support to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s emergent literacy if they are ignorant of emergent literacy as a developmental stage in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literacy learning. Preschool Classroom Environment: This study has revealed that the classroom environments in the study areas have low literacy support. It has also established that the most common aspects of literacy support were the alphabet frieze and month and day names. This effectively means that the environments were not print-rich. The study has further revealed that the preschool teachers had low knowledge levels of how a preschool environment ought to be. In cases where the respondents revealed high knowledge levels, there was a gap between this knowledge and what was obtaining in the classrooms. The findings established that this was due to paucity of resources and having proprietors/managers who were ignorant of preschool education. These findings suggest serious implications on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literacy development. First because preschool teachers and proprietors/managers tended to have low appreciation of what a preschool environment ought to be, they cannot provide the requisite envir onment that fully supports the continuation of emergent literacy. Secondly, because preschool children in the study areas have little exposure to a literacy-rich environment, they may not easily progress from emergent to conventional literacy. Preschool Curriculum: This study has revealed that the study areas do not seem to have any clear philosophy regarding literacy instruction. As such the preschools did not have clear literacy instruction programmes. The study has also established that there is no common syllabus for preschools in Zambia. Preschools were using whatever they could lay their hands on. These findings show that it is difficult to measure the schools literacy instruction success when issues of syllabi are vague. Literacy Instruction Materials: This study has revealed a paucity of teaching and learning materials in the study areas. The most commonly available instructional materials are flashcards, charts and building blocks. The study has established that there is a lack of a variety of reading books, workbooks, literacy objects for pretend play, and generally playthings. In view of the paucity of literacy instructional materials in the study areas, there is less support to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s emergent literacy as children do not have sufficient interaction with a variety of literacy objects. The other implication is that with the paucity of play things, the children spend less time on play related activities and do more of formal learning. Classroom Literacy Practices: This study has revealed that using music is a practice widely employed in all the eight preschools. However, the study has also established that preschool children in the study areas have limited reading experiences. In almost all cases children seldom handle reading books as this is reserved for Reception or Grade 1 levels. This is because teachers do not see this as necessary since the children cannot read in the conventional sense. Further children are rarely read to and hardly engage in shared book reading. It has also been found that there are hardly any independent activities for c hildren not working with an adult. More formal learning as opposed play-related learning has been found to be a common practice. The implication of these findings is that preschool teachers in the study areas are not using developmentally appropriate activities to teach literacy to the preschoolers. CONCLUSION By analysing the classroom practices, preschool teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge of emergent literacy and the environments in the study areas, this study has established that the practices in the eight preschools do not provide sufficient support for the continuation of emergent literacy. A number of factors have militated against high support for emergent literacy. The first factor is the preschool teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ lack of knowledge/appreciation of emergent literacy. This has arisen from the nature of training that preschool teachers undergo in Zambia. Coupled with this is the fact that some of the preschool teachers currently serving in schools have not undergone formal training. In this study almost a third of them were untrained. The other factor is lack of resources to construct appropriate structures forÃ preschools and furnish them with requisite materials. This has been compounded by the fact that preschool education in Zambia is privately run and as such the Government has had n o stake in it. The third fact is the very fact that Government has had no stake in preschool education. This has led to lapses in the registration of preschools and lack of serious and constant monitoring of preschools. As such there is no quality assurance in the provision of preschool education. The results of this study are significant in two main ways: the results have indicated the need for capacity-building preschool teachers in the area of emergent literacy. The results have also demonstrated the need for GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s keen participation in preschool education. As regards the need for capacity-building preschool teachers, the study has demonstrated that while preschool teachers may notice emergent literacy behaviours among preschool children, they cannot unwittingly provide the necessary scaffolding to emergent literacy if they do not have sound knowledge of the phenomenon. This, therefore, means that emergent literacy must be part of preschool teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ curriculum. The need for governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s keen participation in preschool education arises from the fact that most of the inadequacies noted are a result of lack of stringent regulation and monitoring of preschool education. Stringent regulation will ensure that only individuals/institutions meeting the minimum standards are allowed to run preschools. On the other hand, constant monitoring will ensure that high standards are maintained in preschools. Another key way Government needs to participate in preschool education is through provision of grants or instructional materials. It is commendable that preschools are now falling under the Ministry of Education which has expert personnel to oversee the running of education provision in general and preschool education in particular. There is, however, need to come up with a directorate responsible for preschool education. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to acknowledge the valuable contribution of the many people without whom the demands of this research would not have been met. First I pay tribute to my academic supervisor Dr John Simwinga who provided the much needed counsel, guidance and criticisms from the proposal stage right through the completion of this thesis. Thank you for your confidence in me and giving me latitude throughout this academic journey. May God continue to lift you in your academic pursuits. I also wish to thank Mr D.C. Nkosha for having inspired my interest in emergent literacy which led to my pursuing this study. I thank lecturers Mr G Tambulukani and Mr S.B. Hirst for making useful comments at various stages of the study; all lecturers on the NOMA (Norwegian Masters) Literacy Programme for sharpening my academic faculties. Special thanks go to all the participants in Kasempa and Solwezi districts who made it possible for me to undertake the study at no cost. I extend my thanks to all my colleagues on the course with whom I worked well. Notable among them are Ms Mary-Grace Musonda, Ms Georgina Njapau and Mr Benson Kamangala. My gratitude will be incomplete without expressing my indebtedness to my wife for tolerating my academic appetite and for her continued understanding, support and perseverance and remaining a pillar in our home during my long periods of absence. I remain grateful to the girls Tionge and Peggy for enduring my absence and remaining good children while I was away. I am grateful to my employers for granting me paid study leave yet again, without which it would have been impossible to pursue my masterÃ¢â¬â¢s programme. I shall remain forever grateful for the NOMA scholarship granted to me through the University of Zambia. To God be the glory for the great and many things He has done for me. REFERENCES Barton, D., 2007. Literacy Ã¢â¬â An Introduction to the Ecology of Written Language. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Bergen, D., 2001. Pretend Play and Young ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Development. ERIC Digest, ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood EducationÃ Bredekamp S. (ed.) 1987. Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth Through Age 8. Washington, DC: NAEYC. Freeman, E.B., and J.A. Hatch 1989. Ã¢â¬Å"Emergent Literacy: Reconceptualizing Kindergarten Practice.Ã¢â¬ Childhood Education, 66, 21-24. Ghosh B.N., 2006. Scientific Method and Social Research. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers. Gunn, B., D. Simmons and E. Kameenui, 1994. Emergent Literacy: Synthesis of Research. University of Oregon Hall, N., 1989. The Emergence of Literacy. London: Hodder and Stoughton Harste, J.C., V.A. Woodward and C.L. Burke 1984. Language Stories and Literacy Lessons. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational Books. Hiebert, E. H., 1988. Ã¢â¬Å"The Role of Literacy Experiences in Early Childhood Programs.Ã¢â¬ The Elementary School Journal, 89 (2), 161-171. 12 Hiebert, E. H. and J.M. Papierz, 1990. Ã¢â¬Å"The Emergent Literacy Construct and Kindergarten and Readiness Books of Basal Reading Series.Ã¢â¬ Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 5 (3), 317-334. McMahon, R., 1996. Ã¢â¬Å"Introducing Infants to the Joy of Reading.Ã¢â¬ Dimensions of Early Childhood, 24 (3), 26-29 Morrow, L. M., 1990. Ã¢â¬Å"Preparing the Classroom Environment to Promote Literacy during Play.Ã¢â¬ Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 5, 537-554. Morrow, L.M. (ed.), 1995. Family Literacy: Connections in Schools and Communities. New Brunswick: International Reading Association Serpell, R., L. Baker and S. Sonnenschein, 2005. Becoming Literate in the City Ã¢â¬â The Baltimore Early Childhood Project. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Sonnenschein, S. L. Baker, R. Serpell, D. Scher, S. Fernandez-Fein and K. Munsterman, 1996. Ã¢â¬Å"Strands of Emergent Literacy and Their Antecedents in the Home: Urban PreschoolersÃ¢â¬â¢ Early Literacy Development.Ã¢â¬ National Reading Research Centre: Reading Research Report No. 48 Teale, W, and E. Sulzby, 1986. Emergent Literacy: Writing and Reading. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation. Teale, W. H. and E. Sulzby, 1987. Literacy Acquisition in Early Childhood: The Roles of Access and Mediation in Storybook Reading. In D. A. Wagner (ed.), The Future of Literacy in a Changing World (pp. 111-130). New York: Pergamon Press. Van Kleeck, A., 1990. Emergent Literacy: Learning about Print before Learning to Read. Topics in Language Disorders, 10 (2), 25-45. Wilson, N and S. McLean, 1994. Questionnaire Design: A Practical Introduction. Newtown Abbey: University of Ulster Press.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Understanding Shakespeares Seven Ages of Man The poem The Seven Ages of Man is a part of the play As You Like It, where Jacques makes a dramatic speech in the presence of the Duke in Act II, Scene VII. Through the voice of Jacques, Shakespeare sends out a profound message about life and our role in it. Shakespeares Seven Ages of Man All the worlds a stage,And all the men and women merely players,They have their exits and entrances,And one man in his time plays many parts,His acts being seven ages. At first the infant,Mewling and puking in the nurses arms.Then, the whining schoolboy with his satchelAnd shining morning face, creeping like snailUnwillinglyÃ to school. And then the lover,Sighing like furnace, with a woeful balladMade to his mistress eyebrow. Then a soldier,Full of strange oaths, and bearded like the pard,Jealous in honour, sudden, and quick in quarrel,Seeking the bubble reputationEven in the cannons mouth. And then the justiceIn fair round belly, with good capon lind,With eyes severe, and beard of formal cut,Full of wise saws, and modern instances,And so he plays his part. The sixth age shiftsInto the lean and slipperd pantaloon,With spectacles on nose, and pouch on side,His youthful hose well savd, a world too wide,For his shrunk shank, and his big manly voice,Turning again towards childish trebl e, pipesAnd whistles in his sound. Last scene of all,That ends this strange eventful history,Is second childishness and mere oblivion,Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything. In this drama of life, each one of us plays seven distinct roles. This, the author says, is the Seven Ages of Man. These seven roles begin at birth and end with death. Stage 1: Infancy Birthmarks the entry of man in the first stage of life. An infant in the caretakers arms is just a helpless child learning to survive. Babies communicate with us through their cries. Having been nourished in the womb of the mother, the baby learns to accept breast milk as its first food. Vomiting is common among all babies. Once a baby is breastfed, you need to burp the baby. In the process, babies throw up some milk. Since babies do nothing most of the day, other than crying and spitting up after feeding, Shakespeare says that the first stage of life is marked by these two activities. Babies have been perceived as cute since the beginning of time. They feed and spit up, and between these two activities, they also cry. A lot. Young parents know the drill even before they become parents. While babies continue to be puking and mewling little adorable beings, the difference between then and now is that raising babies is a concerted effort between the parents. Stage 2: Schoolboy At this stage of life, the child is introduced to the world of discipline, order, and routine. The carefree days of infancy are over, and schooling brings about a regimen in the life of a child. Naturally, the child takes to whining and complaining about the forced routine. The concept of schooling has seen a great change since the time of Shakespeare. In Shakespeares time, school was a forced practice usually overseen by the church. Depending on the status of the parents, a child went to either a grammar school or a monastic school. SchoolÃ began at sunrise and lasted the whole day. Punishments were common, and often harsh.Ã Modern schools are quite unlike their ancient counterparts. While some kids still whine and complain about going to school, many actually love school because of the play while you learn approach to schooling. Modern day schools have taken a holistic approach to education. Children are taught through role plays, visual presentations, demonstrations, and games. Homeschooling is another option that most parents prefer to formal schooling. Also, with the abundance of online resources, modern education has extended the boundaries of learning. Stage 3:Ã Teenager Teenagers in the medieval times were accustomed to social etiquettes of wooing a lady. The teenager during Shakespeares time pined for his lover, wrote elaborate verses of love ballads, and mooned over his object of desire. Romeo and JulietÃ is an icon of romance during the period of Shakespeares. Love was sensual, deep, romantic, and full of grace and beauty. Compare this love to the teen love of today. The modern age teen is technically savvy, well-informed, and romantically astute. They dont express their love in amorous love letters. Who does that in the age of texting and social media? Relationships are not as elaborate, or romantic as they were for the medieval teenager. The youth of today is far more individual-centric and independent than those in Shakespeares time. Back in those days, relationships were nurtured towards matrimony. Nowadays, marriage is not necessarily the goal of every romantic affiliation, there is more sexual expression and less adherence to social structures such as monogamy. However, despite all these differences, the teenager of today is as angsty as the teenager of the medieval time. They have to deal with unrequited love, heartbreak, and depression just as those in ancient times. Stage 4: Youth The next stage Shakespeare talks about in the poem is that of a young soldier. In old England, young men were trained for combat. The young soldier developed an attitude of brash courage, raw passion mixed with the impetuous temper that is characterized by unwarranted rebellion. The youth of today have the same zeal and energy for rebellion. They are far more expressive, vocal, and assertive about their rights. Though the youth of today would not necessarily be enlisted for service in the army, they have enough avenues to form social groups to fight for a political or social cause. With social media platforms and the global reach of mass media, the young can reach their voice to the far corners of the world. A widespread reaction is almost instantaneous because of the global reach and effectiveness of propaganda.Ã Stage 5: Middle Age The middle age has hardly changed over the centuries. Middle age is the time when men and women settle down, and kids, family, and career take precedence over personal indulgences. Age brings wisdom and a sense of peaceful acceptance of realities of life. Idealistic values get pushed behind, while practical considerations become important. While the middle-aged man (and woman) of today have more options to further personal or professional interests, perhaps the medieval middle-aged man had fewer such options, and, not surprisingly, even less so the medieval woman. Stage 6: Old Age In medieval times, life expectancy hovered around 40, and a man of 50 would consider himself lucky to be alive. Depending on the social or economic class of the person, old age could be harsh or at best, ambivalent. Though the old were respected for their wisdom and experience, most old people suffered due to neglect and degeneration of physical and mental faculties. Those who were oriented towards religious pursuits fared better than the household man. Today, life is alive and vibrant for a 40-year-old. Many senior aged people (starting in their 70s) in the modern era are still actively involved in social activities, secondary occupations, or hobbies. Also, there are good retirement plans and financial devices available to make old age comfortable. It is not so uncommon for a healthy and young-at-heart senior citizen to go on a trip around the world, enjoy gardening or golf, or even continue to work or pursue higher education if they so desire. Stage 7: Extreme Old Age What Shakespeare talks about in this stage of man is an extreme form of aging, where the person is no longer able to perform basic tasks such as bathing, eating, and going to the toilet. Physical frailty and incapacity no longer allow them the freedom to live unassisted. During Shakespeares time, it was quite okay to treat old people as senile. In fact, in the Elizabethan era, where slavery and discrimination against women were highly prevalent, ageismÃ was hardly considered a problem. Old people were treated as little children, and as Shakespeare describes this stage as a second childhood, it was socially acceptable to treat the old with disdain. Todays modern society is more humane and sensitive to seniors. Though ageism still exists and is prevalent in many spheres, with growing awareness, seniors sans teeth, sans eyes, and sans taste still live with the dignity that ought to be afforded to the elderly.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Key Legislation Codes of Practice Gscc Essays Key Legislation Codes of Practice Gscc Essay Key Legislation Codes of Practice Gscc Essay The importance of inclusive practice, in promoting equality and supporting diversity. Inclusion is the opposite of discrimination, by promoting inclusion we are supporting equality and diversity and challenging discrimination. Being able to accept and understand each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s culture, race and religion is vital to successful social integration and a productive working environment. Equality means all people have the same value. I believe we shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t treat people the same way. We need to recognise that people are individualÃ¢â¬â¢s and each individual has different needs. Promotion of equality means promoting equal opportunities for the service user. As professionals we need to put the service user centre to any situation they may find themselves in. For the importance of equality to take place within a health and social care setting we need to show an understanding of the concepts. These include tolerance, care values, Morals and rights, disadvantage. Within hospitals residential care homes and day care homes the concept of tolerance is one of the most important concepts which must be followed. Many different people are from different backgrounds and beliefs. As individuals we may not share the same beliefs or traditions as them. We do however need to act in a professional manner at all times. We must adhere to another personÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs and respect their right to hold that belief or follow their tradition. With this said, we cannot allow our own beliefs to impact thereÃ¢â¬â¢s and approach any situation with an open mind as there is two sides to each view or belief. Care values are the human rights of an individual (service user) I clarify this as; each person has the right to dignity, privacy and is shown respect. To be treated equal as an individual, allowing them to communicate in their own method, protected from harm and cared for in a way that meets their own needs and choices. Each of us is entitled to basic human rights. Researching the human rights act 2000, some of the privileges are the right to life, respect for private and family life, freedom of thought/religion, freedom of expression and an important one is prohibition of discrimination. Without promoting equality of moral rights, the service user is not being treated as an individual within their own rights. As a health care assistant based in a hospital, I witness patients from different backgrounds that have their own cultures and beliefs. This is why health care professionals must promote moral rights of an individual so the patient feels respected. Being treated as an individual will eradicate them feeling worthless and diminish the thought of being treated the same as the patient in the next bed to them. Each of us must demonstrate diversity in practice and understand we are different in some way. An example of being diverse in a health and social care setting; a blind person will need signs, notices, menus in braille where as a deaf patient will not need those aids but instead have the use of hearing aids or sign language. Using single assessments on service users, diversity can be achieved and they will feel more valued. Key legislation laws, codes of practice in relation to diversity, equality, inclusion, discrimination within health and social care. The CQC (Care Quality Commission) is the main regulator for health and social care and this took place in April 2009. Their aim is to implement equality and human rights into day-to day duties. The main purpose is to offer better care have peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s rights protected, and are able to exercise choice and control. Their priority is to ensure care is centred on service userÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and protects their human rights. The CQC act efficiently in times of identified poor quality care and regulate high quality care in partnership. The legal duties of the CQC have a requirement to publish equality schemes set out in; The Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 The Disability Discrimination Act 2005 The Equality Act 2006. These are to ensure that the public sector promotes equality and diversity and eliminates discrimination. The CQC are also covered by wider equality legislation under the human rights act 1998. In conjunction with the CQC there was a new act introduced in October 2010 known as Ã¢â¬ËThe Equality Act 2010Ã¢â¬â¢ this replaces previous acts such as the disability discrimination act 1995 and race relations act 1976. In addition part of the act known as the PSED Ã¢â¬ËPublic Sector Equality DutyÃ¢â¬â¢ came into force April 2011. The act strengthens and adds to previous legislation such as race and disability. Their main focus is to eliminate discrimination, harassment and victimisation. It wants to focus on equality of opportunity and enhance better relations. In terms of codes of practice there are guidelines set up for both the social work employers and employees. They are known under the GSCC (General Social Care Council) The GSCC was set up to regulate the social work profession ensuring only those individuals who are trained at a high degree and committed to high standards only practise in adult social care. The GSCC values diversity and enhances equality through their work. They strive to treat everyone with the dignity and respect they deserve. GSCC have set up codes of practice to ensure social care workers recognise what is expected from them and that service users and public members have an understanding of what quality care they should receive. This policy is intended to form part of legislation, practice standards and employersÃ¢â¬â¢ standards and procedures. Each of us as social care workers must ensure that we follow these codes and not let them fall below the standards set out. We must not let any act or omission harm those of our service users. There are six fundamental codes of practice established by the GSCC and I have included them below. See Appendix 1. 1. Protect the rights and promote the interests of service users/carers. 2. Establish and maintain the trust of service users and its carers. 3. Promote the independence of our service users, whilst protecting them from danger or harm 4. Respect the rights of service users and ensure their behaviours or actions do not harm themselves or others 5. Uphold public trust and confidence in social services. 6. Be accountable for the quality of my work and take responsibility for maintaining and improving our qualities and skills.
Monday, November 4, 2019
Differences between the qualitative and the quantitative data 2111 - Essay Example Qualitative data on the other hand, is the information that relates to qualities that is information that cannot be measured (Taylor, 2005). In this essay, the differences between qualitative and quantitative data will be examined, as well as, their pros and cons. Data that is gathered using quantitative methods yields more accurate and objective information because the information is collected using standardized methods. This data can be replicated and analysed using sophisticated statistical techniques (Creswell, 2014). Data gathered using qualitative methods, on the other hand, does not require the use of statistical methods to analyse the data because it is more suitable for formative evaluations. Summative evaluations requires the use of quantitative measures in order to judge the ultimate value of the project. Qualitative data deals with descriptions where the data that is collected can be observed, but not measured. While quantitative data deals with numbers where the data can be measured (Goertz & Mahoney, 2012). This means that analysing qualitative data is easier because the data is expressed in words and does not require any statistical formula to ensure that the data collected is accurate like in quantitative data. Therefore, it is easier to collected data using qualitative research for people doing social sciences as they analyse the perceptions and views of the people unlike in quantitative data where there is statistical formulas that requires the researcher to have a clear understanding of what they are doing. Data quality and complexity affects the time needed for data collection and analysis (Hartas, 2010). Although technological innovations have played, a major role in shortening the time required to process quantitative data. The time needed to gather quantitative data is considerable in order to pre-test and create questions, as well as,
Friday, November 1, 2019
Ecotopia by Ernest Callenbach - Essay Example They are not in any way inferior or less powerful than the male race. In fact, in the book, it expresses a desire to look at gender without attaching certain and specific roles to it. Women donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be born with an already fixed set of actions and functions in the society that are expected of them. Women can now do what all men can. The book additionally points out that when it is said that women should have more power in the society than what they have now, it clearly also expresses that they do not overpower the men either. As a response to this notion of absolute equality of gender, I personally think that this should truly be the case in a better world. Both men and women should be given equal opportunities, and roles should not be attached to their gender so as to not limit them from the work or functions they might want to have in the society. Who is to say that women should be the one to stay at home and do the household chores while the men should be the one to work and earn the money for the family? Who is to say that women are incapable of performing certain jobs than men, that women may not be as strong or as powerful as men? Today, we are already seeing changes that are moving towards gender equality. More and more women are now becoming more empowered. Compared to the olden times, we are now seeing a significant change in the way people perceive gender and the roles that play around them in the society. Less and less functions and responsibilities are limited and are expected now for each ge nder. With the onset of the age of modernity, people are now starting to realize that with gender equality comes a better world. There is no longer any prejudice or discrimination for both genders, and people are no more liberated to do what they want to do without being condemned or hindered. Although we still see today that men and women are still not completely equal in the society as