Monday, September 30, 2019

How does Wilfred Owen Create Sympathy in his Poem “Disabled” Essay

Wilfred Owen uses a variety of poetic devices to make the reader feel sympathetic for the disabled person portrayed in the poem. Many of Owens ideas of sympathy are not easy to find and the reader picks them up more subliminally unless he were to study the poem. Firstly, the most important point to convey sympathy is the theme of retrospect and tense in this piece and it runs clearly throughout. Owen starts the first stanza in the present tense and we immediately see that he is lonely and inactive. â€Å"He sat in a wheeled chair, waiting†¦Ã¢â‚¬  shows us that he is unable to move and can only sit, his life is controlled by doctors and his ability to make decisions is compromised by injury. Furthermore, the word â€Å"waiting† shows that all he can do is sit around and wait for things to happen, he cannot create or instigate something to cheer him. The poem then, in the fifth stanza he reminisces about what he thought war might be like, â€Å"†¦jewelled hilts† and glory. However, at the end he says, â€Å"Now he will spend a few sick years in institutes†. We feel sorry for the man as we think he has been cheated and lulled into a false sense of security. Owen also uses contrast to evoke sympathy in the way he rhymes at the end of the sentences. The rhyming words contradict or juxtapose one another. â€Å"Knees† and â€Å"disease† are used for contrast as having knees symbolise health and normal lifestyle and it’s what he had before the war. Disease on the other hand symbolises a lack of knees or bad health and it is what he was left with after the war. The juxtaposition of good and bad things makes us feel sad for the man and also make us feel his regret of joining up. Another vessel which Owen uses to make us feel sympathetic is metaphor and simile. He says, â€Å"Poured it down shell holes till the veins ran dry†. This shows us how angry he is with himself in the fact that he is saying he might just as well have poured his blood and his life away. He feels like he made no impact on the war and only bad has come out of it. Caesura is also used to break up sentences and disrupt the flow of a poem. They can create sympathy as sometimes they can be ironic or rhetorical questions. â€Å"He thought he’d better join – he wonders why† is a good example as it shows his remorse for joining the army and the fact that it is out of sync and without a rhyming pair makes it stand out in our memory as a definitive thought of his. The poem also ends with questions like â€Å"why don’t they come† which tell the reader that since the war he is completely reliant on others and he despairs with his lack of freedom. Owen also uses women and war officers to make us feel sympathetic. â€Å"Smiling, they wrote his lie† tells us that the officer signing him up knew that he was not eighteen and was not doing his job properly. It shows that the officers cared more about the numbers in the army than the actual wellbeing of English people. He also describes women as being shallow and their eyes â€Å"passed from him to the men that were whole†. This shows they do not care about a man’s personality and character, only his looks and sexual appeal. This makes us feel angry towards women for being so shallow and want them to not be so driven by seemingly unimportant things.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Lord of the Flies – Piggy

The conch, glasses, and brains are all symbols in Lord of the Flies by William Golding. In this novel, a group of school kids crash into a deserted island and fight wilderness, fear, and themselves to survive. Piggy, being one of the most vital characters in their survival, is often disrespected and overlooked. This is persistent throughout the novel, and can be attributed to his weight and nerdy appearance. Generally, Piggy means well, and tries to help the boy’s survival on the island. Piggy, an extremely complex and intelligent character, contributes to the boy’s survival by using logic and brains. Piggy, along with being the brains of the island, is also a very complex and misunderstood boy. â€Å"Piggy is a much more complex character, than the simplistic interpretations so regularly adduced will allow†. (Reilly. online). This states that Piggy was an extremely complicated character, and is often overlooked by not only characters in the book, such as Jack and Ralph, but also by readers. He is also described as a brainiac by Golding himself, â€Å"Piggy, for all his ludicrous body, had brains†. (Golding 71). This emphasizes to the reader that Piggy’s brain is being discounted due to his stature, and this causes readers to discount his intelligence, however, it brings the reader’s attention to them being naive. This last quote also reinforces the concept that his body is causing his smarts to be overlooked â€Å"Piggy lacks the looks but has the know-how. The trouble is that he knows but cannot do and is relegated†. (Reilly. Online). Lorenz 2 Broken down, this shows that Piggy is a resource that the boys need to utilize, but fail to, and instead they treat him like a set-back, only because he is weak. He has a lot more to offer than just physical labor, and should be honed for using his brain to problem solve, or be inventive. It is quite obvious he was often bullied for his weight at school, due to the fact that kids called him Piggy there too. Piggy also has strong feelings for is Aunt, and often uses her advice to his advantage when speaking to Ralph about a variety of issues. This is shown many times throughout Golding’s writing, and brings the voice of an adult onto the island. Piggy contributes to the group on various occasions. The first is when he discovers the shell. It is Piggy who is first excited by the shell, but only as a curio†. (Kinead-Weekes, Mark. Gregor, Ian. 39). Piggy is the first to find the shell, and even states that it would be a great idea to use as a way of allowing everyone in the groups voice to be heard. This method with the shell is used throughout the entire novel, up until the falling action. Piggy is also the voice of reason during th e debate about the beast. He argues on the side of logic, and is not swayed by the littlun’s opinions. â€Å"So let’s hear from that littlun who talked about a beast and perhaps we can show him how silly he is† (Golding 78). This is the best example Golding gives of Piggy’s logic throughout the novel. Amongst the mass panic that is brewing on the island, Piggy still has a clear mind and will not believe in simple hear-say, or rumor, he believes in fact, and until he sees that beast, it will not exist to him. He also seems a little cold, being the smallest bit rude to the littlun who is afraid. Piggy tries to take lead numerous times, and is not taken seriously. However, when Piggy helps out Ralph, and doesn’t take the lead in speaking or assigning jobs to other survivors, he is taken seriously, and does a great job at what he is doing to help out. Lorenz 3 â€Å"[Piggy’s] common sense is evident from the start as when he organizes the meeting and tries to make a list of everyone present†. (Reilly. Online). Patrick Reilly’s view on Piggy is spot on. His common sense is immediately shown during the scene of the first meeting, and makes the reader think he would be critical to the survival and rescue of the group. In addition to Piggy’s brain helping the boys survive, other aspects of Piggy were used, such as his glasses. Without Piggy’s horrible eye sight, and him needing to wear glasses, the boys would never have been able to start a fire, a fire that ultimately led to their rescue. This is very ironic considering Piggy was killed before he would ever see rescue†¦ a rescue that without him would never have happened. Golding did this to reinforce the importance of Piggy in the novel. It showed that no matter how useless he may have seemed, he still was the one that helped the most, in the long run. He was the most important boy to be on that island. He, in reality, saved Jack, an abusive boy who harassed him ever since they crashed, and Roger, the boy who threw stones, and the boy who murdered the innocent Piggy. Though Piggy reaches his greatest stature at the moment of his death, it is also the moment of his greatest blindness, rendered for us at a level far deeper than his lost spectacles†. (Kinead-Weekes. Mark. 43). Piggy was completely blindsided from Rogers’s boulder. This moment in the novel makes readers realize the tragedy of Piggy’s death. The shattering of the glasses represents his knowledge and insight turning to dust, all in front of the very people he saves, from the cage that is the island. The conch was also with him at the moment of his death. This is significant because it symbolizes the shattering of all that Piggy believed in. He truly believed the conch would save him from anything on the island, and in the end it simply did not work. Lorenz 4 Perhaps Piggy’s greatest example of insight, however, was his speech on the monsters that Jack and Roger have become. ‘â€Å"What are we? Humans? Or animals? Or savages? ’Piggy rages as the assembly lurches toward darkness, and his questions are not restricted to the wicked Childs-play of beastly boys on a tropic island†. (Reilly 7). Piggy shows that he realizes what is happening to the island, and that he sees the conflicts that are occurring between Jack, Roger, and Ralph. Piggy almost predicts that the savagery will get worse. This is a very good example of Golding’s foreshadowing throughout the novel. This character was, for me, the best part of the entire literary work of The Lord of the Flies. Piggy was an extremely complex and intelligent character, he contributed to the boys survival on many accounts, and was the adult that all of the boys wished they had in the end. Piggy was complex in his mind, and his actions, as well as intelligent when it came to problem solving, and advising Ralph.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Brenda’s Flight Essay

As Gregor saw his many legs waving in the air it symbolizes the rejection of different people because as a traveling salesman he used to move constantly from one place to another and in the habit of waking up in unfamiliar surroundings and various circumstances. He must show his patience, perseverance and eagerness to induce many customers because from that he can earn his living. But as we all know not all the people that we used to mingle with can accept and entertain us positively. The weight on Gregor’s life represents the resistance to change in family tradition that he is the financial head of the household; nobody else probably works in his family; their whole present and comfortable existence relies upon Gregor’s employment. Most of his burden is the debt which his father owes to the employer for whom Gregor now works. His mere condition shows the exploitation of one by many because the reactions of his own family revealed that he is just an impending burden to them. They care for him but they are so horrified by his presence that’s why they take to shutting Gregor into his room. They tend to shrink back whenever he reveals himself and his father embedded one of the apples in his back, causing an infection. As he hides himself underneath a sheet is the metaphor for rejection of sick people because it attests that he is afraid to see and to be seen by other people because of that his family becomes the jailer, they locked Gregor in from the outside. Though bereft of human contact, he is still concern for his family and at the same time mad at them for neglecting him. We can de – humanize our enemies by letting them realize their fault and shortcomings; in short we try to touch their conscience. Just like the way Gregor did in this story, he would have left his family out of love and taken their burden away. He returns to his room and collapses, finally giving in to his wound and starvation. I think he did that for one good reason to open the mind of his family that during the days of helping them and even sacrificing for their benefits, he didn’t even murmured or ask something in return coming from them. The Nazi treatment of Jews in the hand of Germany headed by Hitler was violent and so bloody. Hitler called the Jews as his enemies. Enemy defined as opponent or hostile nation. When we called somebody as an opponent it simply meant that we must do something that would hurt them, made them miserable and finally killed them. These are the objectives of Hitler to all his enemies. He pursued boycotts for the Jewish shops and businesses in ! 933; in 1934, the law banned all the Jewish form public places; plundered the Jewish teachers, civil servants and lawyers. Some of the maltreatments were removing the privilege to the Jews to become a German citizen; restriction of inter racial marriage;working and holding property in Germany; the assassination of many Jews and yet penalizing them. The reason why all of these things happened because of selfish desire and greediness. These are not good if many would suffer and be affected by covetousness and hatred. Hostility toward or discrimination against Jews as a religious, ethnic, or racial group is considered as the meaning of anti – semitism. The anti – Semitism in Europe was almost the same predicament of that in the Nazi, Germany. The hatred to the Jews that’s inside their heart becomes deeper and deeper. One example of this was a soccer match between the Israeli and Belgian national teams in Hasselt, Belgium, when Muslim fans waved Hamas and Hezbollah banners, and chanted: â€Å"Jews to the gas chambers! † and â€Å"Strangle the Jews! â€Å"(taken from the Cancer of Anti – Semitism in Europe). We can conclude in this simple illustration that the hatred developed in the past still lingers in the present situation. The suppression of one’s freedom and stepping onto the human rights of a person developed them in two personalities: they may become weak and dependent while on the other hand a person may possess a strong will to fight and defend himself from his enemies. According to Iris Bruce and Cassill, many interpretations of Franz Kafka’s writings have accentuated their psychological, religious, existential and moral dimensions and initiated a whole genre of the kqfkaesque which summon up associations of the grotesque and absurd but is rarely associated with a sense of humour. A ‘Kafkaesque,’ or Kafka-like situation being one of a strange or nightmarish quality become a part of the language from Kafka’s name. Generally, after World War II (and fundamentally due to the prominence of New Criticism and Existentialism in the literary academies during this time), a Kafka myth has crystallized which stresses Kafka’s existential anguish: interpretations, be they religious, phenomenological, existentialist, symbolic or allegorical, center on the psychology of the author, who is presented as being overcome by the sense of absurdity and alienation so prevalent in twentieth. Where this metaphysical approach in literary translation as a discipline has been most detrimental is in its emphasis on the â€Å"universal† rather than on specific textual elements, in the fascination with Kafka’s personal neuroses, in the mingling of psychological speculation and literary criticism which frequently led to a â€Å"false confusion of empirical and literary selves† and most importantly in its overall disregard of the playful and humorous dimension in Kafka’s texts. Conclusion Kafka’s wanted to share the reality that is happening into our life or others life particularly in our society nowadays. The Metamorphosis was all about Gregor Samsa. This story emphasized the way a man entered the world of despised and how discrimination created hostility. Even his own family tired to suppressed, despised and hurt him not only physically but mentally. The same with our society, the persons who are in the authority sometimes take advantage of everything even to the point that they stepped onto the human rights and privilege of a person. Loving something or someone because you profit from them will not be a good foundation because what if the proceed is gone, are you going to hate him or still love him? Conflict is always present if the environment that we used to stay with is not that aware that justice must be offer to everyone. Hurting people or even killing them without important reason, it’s simply because of selfish desire and hatred won’t make any sense in reality. Instead of doing those things, why don’t we learn to love and forgive them? In the end, we’re going to realize that love is the answer in any changes or metamorphosis that will happen in to our life. Love conquers hatred. Works Cited Peter Kuper Kafka’s The Metamorphosis http://www. randomhouse. com/crown/metamorphosis/ Walker, Jews in Nazi Germany http://www. schoolhistory. co. uk/lessons/germany/jews. html Understanding the Treatment of Jews during World War II http://www. dummies. com/how-to/content/understanding-the-treatment-of-jews-during-world-w. html Edward B. Donnell Jr. , Anti-Semitism in Europe Today http://www. state. gov/p/eur/rls/rm/38113. htm The Cancer of Semitism in Europe http://www. aish. com/societyWork/society/The_Cancer_of_Anti-Semitism_in_Europe. asp

Friday, September 27, 2019

Poverty Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words - 1

Poverty - Research Paper Example My research will point out the importance of certain functions in the Elizabethan history of poverty and its relevance to present world. Presence of poor people is evidently manifested around the globe. Changes in political and economic organizations result to re-distribution of wealth and in effect, the number of poor people increases, rate of poverty heightens, and in domino effect, crimes are manifested. Way back in the middle Ages in England, society has been defined into three categories, monarchy, nobility, and peasantry. These three elements of the society are considered to be interdependent between each other and in spite of the existing differences between the three when it comes to status and wealth, buffer have to be put on the side of the peasantry. Continuous trends of the monarchical policies led to the rise of unemployed people and subsequently heighten poverty and crime. With regard to resolving this issue, during the Elizabethan times, acts and laws were struggled and serve as the buffer between the monarchical and the peasant (Talbot, R. 2002). The population grows and as it grows, the pressure of sustenance to peoples needs is evidently manifested not only on the part of the government but as well as on the part of the general public. Acts have been promulgated and stretched that the poor people was belong to the community’s responsibility and every individual has a role to play in the society. Poverty is a state of material and social deprivation. People who experience poverty feel the deprivation of well-being, having not enough income to support the needs of the family when it comes to basic necessities such as food, shelter, and clothing. Child malnutrition is considered the closest manifestation of poverty among the poor families in a certain society. In Elizabethan society, the definition of poverty is also the same with regard to the universal definition, however, Elizabethan treatment to poor

Thursday, September 26, 2019

History 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

History 2 - Essay Example This happened in the march of 1985. It was as a result of the emergence of younger communists. These people had radical thinking and were fed up with the years of stagnation in the Soviet Union both politically and economically. Gorbachev had a team of reform-oriented technocrats who thought that economic development was at a very slow pace in USSR (Brown, 1996). With these things in mind and a hope to achieve rapid economic development, Gorbachev introduced programs like glasnost that is political openness and perestroika, which meant Economic restructuring (R.English, 2000). Adding to it was the policy named Uskoreniye, which meant gearing up of economic development. These policies came up in 1986 (Brown, 1996). These can be marked as the main weapons that led to the dismantling of the great Soviet Union (Helene, 1992). As the conservatives at that time did not agree with Gorbachev regarding these reforms by the name of economic restructuring, he introduced glasnost stating that th e transformations in the economy would be difficult to achieve without corresponding changes in the political scenario in the nation (R.English, 2000). Gorbachev thought that these reforms would speed up the Economic development of USSR and was confident that he would have people’s support by having their views in a wide range of openness through glasnost. However Glasnost resulted in an unexpected situation where freedom of speech became much more prominent and the fourth estate’s domination started (David, 1994). This gave the opportunity for press to be more comfortable in expressing the loopholes in Soviet Union and the hidden truths that were never known to people. Many political prisoners were released as a result and USSR was a topic that was free to explore by many foreign sources as well (David, 1994). Many topics that were hidden in the past were now brought to light. People started to become aware of the

The Budgeting Committee of Hardhat Limited Research Paper

The Budgeting Committee of Hardhat Limited - Research Paper Example Performing profitability analysis requires an understanding of selling prices and the behavior of activity cost drivers. (Activity cost driver is often referred to as cost driver when the context is clear that we are discussing activity, rather than structural or organizational, cost drivers.) Profitability analysis is widely used in the economic evaluation of existing or proposed products or services. Typically, it is performed before decisions are finalized in the operating budget for a future period. This report shows the analysis done to find out the changes in the profit when the costs increase and how much of sales is requires to achieve the targeted profits and also the selling price that is required to achieve the targeted profit. For the CVP analysis it is assumed that the total costs can be segregated into fixed and variable costs, the fixed cost remains constant during the relevant period, variable cost per unit remains constant during the period of consideration and the selling price will also be constant irrespective of the volume sold during the year 2007/ 2008. It is also assumed that the production and sales volume will remain constant. With these assumptions as the background, the calculation of the effect of profit is calculated when there is the change in selling price, sales volume and cost of resources are made and submitted.   Ã‚  It is mentioned that the expected sales, variable costs an fixed costs will change in the year of 2007/ 2008. The reason for the increase in fixed cost is the increase in the selling expenses due to expected increase in sales volume and the increase in administration costs are due to an expected increase in salaries. Hence, we have to find out, the relative sales volume to earn the target profits and the new selling price when the sales volume increases by 10% and 20%. These analyses help to understand the triangular relationship between the costs, the volume of sales and profits. Understanding of this relationship helps to make managerial decisions and to devise marketing strategies. From the information provided the variable cost and the fixed costs are segregated to calculate the contribution. Contribution per unit is the difference between the selling price and the variable cost per unit. The contribution is not profit. Contribution means the amount that is obtained by the sale of each unit towards a recovery of the fixed costs.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Three Parables from according to Luke Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Three Parables from according to Luke - Essay Example The pastor, who was actually the teacher of laws of Moses, broke the same laws by failing to express love and compassion to the injured person. Instead, a man of Samaritan considered being naive about the laws of Moses expresses love and compassion and takes responsibilities of caring for the injured man. Spiritually regarding the parable of the Good Samaritan, a number of lessons build up. The first this parable reminds us that not all who call or preach the word of God depict true salvation. This is evident where the pastor who preaches the word of God passes by the side of the injured man who is actually enduring a lot of pain. Spiritually, the pastor should be the very first person to help any individual undergoing particular problem without regard to any form diversity. The lost sheep While using this parable, Jesus intended to define the qualities of a true church leader. Jesus defines a good leader as one who knows and values all the subjects in equal measures. It is therefore the responsibility of a leader to look and bring back any lost subject without just focusing on the many. Jesus also intended to encourage church leaders to extend their ministries outside the church and identify, preach and covert other individuals grappling in sin (Luke 15.1-7). The spiritual significance of this parable is that it reminds human nature of the great compassion and care Jesus has over our souls. This parable further assures us that Jesus considers every single soul as of great importance and significance to the Heavenly Kingdom. Being a shepherd, he moved from heaven to earth to search and restore every lost soul back to heavenly paradise of the Lord. The act of the shepherd leaving the ninety-nine sheep to look for the one lost sheep is a reminder for devoted Christians to maintain unity and help each other on their way to heaven. This unity is fundamental in enhancing cohesion among Christians despite the absence of church leaders and pastors. The prodigal son Th e general teachings of Jesus from the parable of the prodigal son revolve around forgiveness, reconciliation, and disadvantages of being wealth centered. Nothing should hinder us or act as impedance to our wish of forgiving and reconciling with our adversaries. The parable also teaches us not to celebrate about the failure and fall of others. Logically, the father of the two sons was not happy when the younger son demanded for inheritance particularly money, and his departure to the far country. Being that the father had a lot of wealth including land and servants, the departure of the younger son with his monetary inheritance only must have been pleasure to the older son for he would inherit other remaining wealth. However sad about the departure of the son with a lot of wealth and then returning with nothing, the father still forgave and welcomed back his younger son with a lot of joy and celebrations (Luke 15:17-20). The older son, who might have considered the departure of his y ounger brother as the basis of his success and prosperity considering the immense wealth remaining, ended up tormented over the return of the brother. The younger son who viewed wealth as more precious than relations did regretted for his mistakes when he finished all the money with returning back home being the only option. Spiritually, the parable could be teaching us to ignore and perhaps not toil in concentrating

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Text analyses Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Text analyses - Essay Example The writer introduces the topic by giving the details on Sydney Central Station. This introduction gives information on its location, the people it serves and its purpose. The same paragraph also introduces the major discussion in the text. The writer then discusses the topic in the subsequent paragraphs before making a conclusion in the last paragraph to recap the content of the body. There is a positive attempt in sentence structure and development of paragraphs. The sentences contain a noun and verb such as in â€Å"As a public sector, Sydney central station is the largest railway station in Australia.† The paragraphs have an introductory sentence and the subsequent sentences support the idea before the concluding sentence recaps them as indicated in the fifth paragraph. Right from the introductory paragraph, the writer exhibits proper coordination through appropriate use of conjunctions such as although, indeed, generally and therefore. For example, â€Å"Although Sydney central station is...† and â€Å"Therefore, in order to give some useful advises†¦Ã¢â‚¬  used to introduce a contradictory sentence and to express an eventuality respectively. There is good use of noun phrases such as â€Å"poor facilities† and â€Å"long queues†. Both simple and complex sentences have been correctly used. Examples include â€Å"Therefore, all the series of problems are to be solved† and â€Å"Typically, the Sydney central railway station is responsible for satisfying all customers and improving the high level of service† respectively. The writer uses active voice to show authority in expressing own opinion. This is seen in â€Å"In my opinion, it is†¦Ã¢â‚¬  This is critically used in the conclusion paragraph to stam p authority in the essay. On the other hand, the writer portrays some weaknesses in the essay. There is inappropriate use of conjunctions such as above all in â€Å"above all, the most obvious symbol of the station’s problem†¦Ã¢â‚¬  The writer sought

Monday, September 23, 2019

Hagar in The Stone Angel Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Hagar in The Stone Angel - Essay Example On various occasions the hero of a tragedy is given opportunities to overcome his mistakes. Many modern writers have extended the category of a tragic hero and have included a common man who is equally capable of becoming a tragic hero. Hagar, in The Stone Angel is one such example. Hagar is a common woman with self-made dignity. She has a misstep, a tragic flaw, which is her unconquerable pride. As she says â€Å"Pride was my wilderness and the demon that led me there was fear... [I was] never free, for I carried my chains within me, and they spread out from me and shackled all I touched.† Her pride became the cause of her failed relationships with her father, brothers and sons. On various occasions Lawrence makes us understand her proud nature. She would not pretend to be her mother to console her dying brother. The incident ruined her relationship with her brother Matt. Her proud nature became the cause of her poor relationship with her husband. She felt too proud to show her emotions towards her husband. She refused to let John and Arlene stay in her house for the night. She refused to cry at the death of Arlene. â€Å"I shoved her [matrons] arms away.  Ã‚  I straightened my spine... I wouldnt cry in front of strangers, whatever it cost me†. The realization, that her pride came in the way of her son’s happiness, came to her very late. Hagar refused to adjust herself to the circumstances. She would not shift to the nursing home and instead told Doris and Marvin to move out of the house. Her stubborn nature came in the way of her happiness. It led her to her destruction. The tragedy of Hagar is that she refuses to change. Although Hagar and King Lear appear similar in their journey to self-discovery, a major difference becomes evident in the after effects of their epiphanies. Lear is redeemed after his epiphany and pushes away his pride. He reconciles with his daughter and is sent to jail, which does not matter

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Violeta Ramirez Essay Example for Free

Violeta Ramirez Essay â€Å"To many Americans, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez seems a Latin wild man. But to the millions of Venezuelans who adore him, he is the first leader who genuinely cares for the nations poor majority, a welcome departure from politicians who traditionally catered to the elite. I think God sent him. I think hes the reincarnation of Simon Bolivar. Hes with the poor, says Omaira Perez, 60, referring to the 19th century general who liberated Venezuela from Spanish rule. † (Lynch, 2007) Hugo Rafael Chavez was born in Venezuela’s western grassland region on July 28, 1954. Socialism, Latin American integration and anti imperialism are promoted by the president because he was also leading the Bolivarian Revolution. Neo-liberal globalization and U. S. foreign policy were the main critics of the president. His parents were schoolteacher which is not a lucrative profession by any mean in Venezuela. He was belong to a poor family besides this in Venezuela dark skinned dark skin people faces strong racial divisions and white skinned people are elite. When he was seventeen years old he enrolled at Venezuela â€Å"Academy of Military Sciences† and studied engineering. After completion of acidic career he joined military for several months. Chavez was immediately popular with his fellow students, he and his fellow students developed a left nationalist doctrine that they termed Bolivarianism inspired by his real hero Simon Bolivar, the father of Venezuelan independence and a figure of legendary dimensions. (Resources on Iran, n. d. ) He was also the part of the lectureship and was famous for his fiercy lecturing style and radical critique of Venezuelan government and society. With his natural charisma, he brings closer soldiers to his ideas, and built a network of supporters within the army. In 1983 he established MBR 200, the revolutionary Bolivarian movement (Movimiento Bolivariano Revolucionario 200), 1983 being the 200th anniversary of Simon Bolivars birth. (ISIS Report, n. d. ) â€Å"With oil profits booming and his popularity high, Chavez seems to be in step with many Venezuelans even as spooked investors rushed to sell off Venezuelan stocks in companies subject to his nationalization plans. Chavez called that a knee-jerk overreaction, and shares in Venezuelas leading telephone company rebounded as the congressional finance chief assured reporters Wednesday that the government will negotiate compensation to the affected companies. He also visited the tomb of Simon Bolivar, the South American independence hero and inspiration for his Bolivarian Revolution, and blew kisses to supporters tossing rose petals at his open car. Before flying to Nicaragua, the former paratroop commander also watched a military parade with Russian-made Sukhoi fighter jets thundering overhead. † (James, 2007) Simon Bolivar: Influent Al Person in Hugo Chavezs Life Major influence on Chavez came from Simon Bolivar, from where Bolivarian movement was developed. The memory of Simon Bolivar has yet kept alive in Venezuela, the revolution of 19th century which led the sub continent independence battle against Spain. Simon Bolivar was born in Spain and many of his followers were native of Venezuela. Nonetheless, Simon Bolivar remained to be a significant and founding myth for the Venezuela institute. Particularly, his arm forces helped him a lot to bind them together even though of political instability. Chavez when he was a school child during the periods of 1950’s and 1960’s in the school studied a lot Bolivar’s feats against the Spaniards. The defining event in his life came when in 1989 the economy was devastated by rising oil prices which led President Carlos Andres Perez to a serious of tough measures. As a result of rising oil prices, buses fares were increased which led to protests by poor people and the army was sent to suppress the protestors. Chavez belong that part of the group that was deployed and he was enraged when he listen the order shoot all the citizens who he believes had a legitimate grievances. This was the motivation which led to his army coup that he organized against the same president some three years later. (Amirpur, 2006) â€Å"Invoking Christ and Castro as his socialist models, President Hugo Chavez began his third term †¦ by declaring that socialism, not capitalism, is the only way forward for Venezuela and the world. † (James, 2007) MBR 200. Revolutionary Bolivarian Movement-200 The MBR 200 was the social and political movement that Hugo Chavez founded in 1983. Chavez established MBR 200 setting as its political goals the realization of Bolivars ideals by means of a Bolivar resolution, which refers to a mass social and political movement in Venezuela aimed at eradication of corruption and emphasized on redistributive social justice and economic and political sovereignty. Some important points of Chavezs Bolivarianism are: †¢ Political participation of the masses by votes, referendum and councils †¢ Political and economic sovereignty †¢ Economic self – sufficiency †¢ Building in people nationality and patriotism †¢ Eradication of corruption †¢ Equal distribution of oil revenues of his land (Cordesman, 2005) 1992 Coup Chavez was working as a lieutenant colonel during his late 30s. In addition, he was also working as a committed left wing activist, mixing with left wing group outside the army and conspiring in the institution for the sake of coup d’etat. So, after an extended period of dissatisfaction and economic decline under the administration of President Perez, Chavez and his fellow conspirators launched a military coup in Feb 1992. Although the coup was not entirely successful Chavez came to national prominence due to a abruptly speech made shortly after his arrest, the Venezuelan government allowed him forty five second speech in order to tell his co-conspirators to lay down the arm. It was a mistake made on the government part and Chavez made the most of it. (Evans and Corsi, 2006) Chavez in Power When Chavez spent his 2 year life in Jail during the period of 1990s economy of Venezuela was went on to bear the huge burden of oil prices. Support for the two of main political parties decline in elections of 1994, Chavez found the population increasingly receptive to its critique of the two party models and its associated corruption. Chavez organized a new party called the â€Å"fifth republic movement† During 1996 97 his support gradually increased in polls and he scored a comfortable majority and took power in 1998, his first political office with 56 percent of votes. Resentment against the United States â€Å"One of the reasons that Chavez is so rhetorically antagonistic to the United States is that it plays very well in terms of his domestic support base at home. † (Lapper and Sweig, 2006) According to Richard lapper, the Latin American editor of Financial Times, Hugo Chavez â€Å"likes to present himself at the head of a kind of anti-Bush crusade. He likes to see himself as a crusader in that particular battle and likes to position himself at the head of that. † (Lapper and Sweig, 2006) â€Å"To be sure, President Chavez has legitimate reasons to lambaste the United States, which has tried to undermine him several times since he was first democratically elected in 1998. In October 2001, Washington requested that Mr. Chavez publicly retract criticism that he had made, in Venezuela, of the U. S. war in Afghanistan, well within his right as a sovereign leader. Carlos Romero, a political scientist at Central University in Venezuela and an expert in U. S. -Venezuelan relations, describes such U. S. hubris as a provocation, and a turning point in the deterioration of U. S. -Venezuelan relations. (Sreeharsha, 2006) Then the United States, despite its support of the Democratic Charter adopted at the 2001 Summit of Americas in Quebec, was quick to recognize the leaders of a coup in 2002 that quickly failed. The United States has provided opposition groups with millions of dollars of support in the name of democracy. Lately, the Bush administration has been keeping a low profile, Romero says, perhaps a disappointment to President Chavez. † (Sreeharsha, 2006) From Democracy towards a Totalitarian State â€Å"Violence has marked each step along Chavezs road to power. The former paratrooper first tried to seize control by a coup in 1992; he failed and instead spent two years in jail. He later tried democracy and was elected as an outsider by Venezuelans six years later. Chavezs opponents admit he is popular, especially among the poor. But being popular, they say, does not give the president the right to do whatever he wants. The police, military and armed thugs have been tools used freely by Chavez to hang on to power during a coup attempt and a national strike in 2002. (The Iron Fist of Hugo Chavez, 2005) There has been a continuous debate whether Chavez has released from corruption accusation or he himself damaged the country’s own foundation of democracy. Some believe that the Hugo Chavez have more power than any president should have. Chavezs new constitution has been seen as authoritarian. Although there are detailed sections involving human rights, but some believe that the power given to the highest branch of government can easily lead to human rights violations. The new constitution also allows the president to be in the office considerably, which some suggests leads to authoritarianism. Scholars also criticized the way Chavez gained power and his conduct afterwards. The motivation behind his recent constituent assembly has been seen as to settle the score with Venezuelans traditional opposition parties and remove them from all positions of influence. One scholar suggested that Chavez himself overthrown the government in 1992 as similar to the corruption of the traditional parties of Venezuela, which clutched power by the military inventions in 1945 and misbalanced Venezuela’s supreme court and congress. Now, buoyed by electoral victories and high oil prices, Chavez appears to be doing everything he can to snuff out democracy before the eyes of a nation and a world that does not seem to be paying much attention. Chavez has packed the Supreme Court and the army with his supporters, seized control of the countrys wealth and introduced a penal code that criminalizes dissent. Anyone who opposes him faces violence or prison. † (The Iron Fist of Hugo Chavez, 2005) â€Å"The Venezuelan leaders insistence on uniting numerous leftist parties into a single socialist bloc and eliminating the constitutions presidential term limits has opened the first fissures in his coalition. Annual inflation of more than 20% Latin Americas highest is undermining the economic gains of recent years and igniting doubts about Chavezs free spending. Recent nationalizations of two companies owned by U. S. firms further sours the business climate. † (Lynch, 2007) On the other way, some believe that the Chavez protected the democracy. In their point of views, since Chavez does not belong to any party, and he came from the grass roots and has seen all the hardships, therefore he is more capable to meet the interest of the Venezuelans. Some opponent of Chavez equates him with Fujiori but his comparison is not correct because unlike Fujimori Chavez has a self-governing foreign military, a revolutionary disclosure and he did not endorse huge privatization. Economic Policies â€Å"The changes are in keeping with pledges he made after his re-election last month to take a more radical turn toward socialism. His critics have voiced concern that he would use his sweeping victory to tighten his grip on power, following in the footsteps of Fidel Castro. Cuba, one of Chavezs closest allies in the region, nationalized major industries shortly after Castro came to power in 1959. Bolivias Evo Morales, another Chavez ally, moved to nationalize key sectors after taking office last year. † (Rueda, 2007) Venezuela is the 5th largest oil producer, which remains the key of Venezuelan economy. Chavez has gained a reputation as a price hawk in OPEC. At a meeting of OPEC in July 2006, Venezuela was the only country calling for lowered production to drive oil prices higher. Some critics say that under the President Chavez regime the output of Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) which is a state owned company, has been reduced by 25% and Venezuela cannot meets it current quota. However Forbes argues that the political and other influence have an effect on numbers. Nonetheless, Chavez has attempted to broaden Venezuelas customer base by getting into joint ventures with other developing countries including China, Brazil, Argentina and India. Although the record oil prices have meant more funding for the social and development plans, but it has also left the economy dependent on oil sector, private sector role has diminished. â€Å"As Venezuela embarked on another six years under Hugo Chavez, the president announced plans to nationalize power and telecom companies and make other bold changes that will concentrate more power in his hands. † (Rueda, 2007)

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Case study of Etisalat

Case study of Etisalat 1. Introduction Etisalat is one of the biggest information transfers organizations on the planet and the heading administrator in the Middle East and Africa, headquartered in the UAE. Etisalat works in 18 nations crosswise over Asia, the Middle East and Africa, adjusting in excess of 100m clients out of an aggregate populace of pretty nearly 1.9bn individuals. In 2010, Etisalat reported yearly Net Revenues of AED 30.831billion and Net Profits of AED 8.836 billion denoting a 5% and 16% increment separately, contrasted with 2009. Etisalat is evaluated by Moodys: Aa2, Standard Poors: A + and Fitch Ratings: A+. Etisalat is a thorough information transfers supplier offering an one-stop look for versatile and settled line voice and information administrations to people, ventures and worldwide information transfers organizations, Isps, content suppliers and portable administrators. It offers a mixed bag of howdy tech complimentary administrations to the information transfers industry including managerial and specialized preparing, SIM card fabricating, installment results, clearing house administrations, peering, voice and information travel, and submarine and area link administrations. Etisalat has a notoriety for propelling the right administration to the right group of onlookers at the right market at the perfect time. This has been seen over and over, with the presentation of portable, GSM, Internet, NGN altered and versatile broadband administrations into the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Etisalat is likewise the real center in the Middle East, for web, voice, versatile broadband, show, wandering and corporate information administrations, with a broad provincial and intercontinental system. It is the biggest bearer of global voice activity in the Middle East and Africa and the twelfth biggest voice transporter on the planet. Etisalat is the biggest extensive supplier of bearer and wholesale administrations in the area with Points of Presence (Pop) in New York, London, Amsterdam , Frankfurt, Paris and Singapore giving a positively worldwide span. Etisalat has 525 meandering understandings joining 185 nations empowering Blackberry, 3g and voice wandering. Etisalat is a significant speculator in Thuraya, one of the worlds heading satellite geo-versatile correspondence frameworks coating more or less two thirds of the planets surface. 2. Importance and objectives of the report The fundamental execution targets for Etisalat are quality, expense, time, adaptability and trustworthiness. These targets of the organization may be compressed as takes after: Etisalat predominantly work with a specific end goal to get to more individuals to amplify the scope of the organization ceaselessly so as to develop all the more as the time goes Organization goes for the individuals to live in reality as we know it where the separation between them doesnt make a difference. This implies that organization need to perform in such a route, to the point that through telecom innovation, it can preclude the separation among the individuals Organizations goal incorporates full openness towards the client so that any client can arrive at to the organization in the event that he or she has nay issue Organization intends to open up the open doors for every single individual and affections to help the individuals keeping in mind the end goal to get the best yield and give the best execution to the business One of the primary execution targets of the organization is to achieve a large amount of vitality among the workers and other staff of the organization kee ping in mind the end goal to support the individuals with the best telecom administrations conceivable. 3. Literature Review Rivalry in the neighborhood market: Regardless of doubt concerning managed portable endorser development during a period when infiltration rate in the UAE was 130% at the end of 2006, with the dispatch of du, the second versatile administrator in February 2007, quarterly net portable supporter increments for the aggregate market practically multiplied, arriving at a rough 570,000 for every quarter throughout 2007, contrasted with a normal of 247,000 endorsers for every quarter in 2006. They dont hope to witness a value war between the two UAE administrators in the short term, given the altogether more modest scale of operations that du oversees, contrasted with Etisalat. Given that the level of engineering sent by both administrators is comparative, they accept that the quality and differing qualities of packaged administrations and advancements will be the base for rivalry in the short term. Union of global operations: All through 2007, Etisalat expanded its stakes in the vast majority of its global operations, empowering it to completely unite them into its money related proclamations which, they accept, will build the estimation of Etisalat in the medium to long haul. In the short term, in any case, they anticipate that Etisalats operational execution will decline or ease off, as the majority of these operations are still misfortune making. Solid money position: Preceding 2006, Etisalat had no obligation on its monetary explanations, producing every last bit of its money needs inside. Nonetheless, with Etisalats expanded concentrate on its global operations, administration embraced an outer financing approach to reserve its development method in these nations. Then again, notwithstanding Etisalats new obligation approach, net obligation/EBITDA stays negative, suggesting significantly more space for extra obligation limit and enhanced weighted normal expense of capital. Remote stock proprietorship boycott: As of now, Etisalat is in talks with both the UAE government and the capital business powers to transform it to a company administered by business law. In the event that Etisalat gets support to change to an organization authorized by business law, then it would get qualified for outside proprietorship. Right now, just UAE nationals are permitted to exchange the stock. On the off chance that the remote proprietorship boycott is lifted, they suspect an ascent in turnover and offer cost. Remote stock proprietorship blacklist: Starting now, Etisalat is in converses with both the UAE government and the capital business forces to convert it to an organization managed by business law. On the off chance that Etisalat gets backing to change to an association commissioned by business law, then it would get fit the bill for outside proprietorship. At this time, simply UAE nationals are allowed to trade the stock. If the remote proprietorship blacklist is lifted, they think a rising in turnover and offer cost. 4. Methods /sources of information There are a few attributes of the administrations gave by Etisalat. These attributes are connected with the execution of the organization. These are a portion of the critical peculiarities identifying with execution target of the organization. Aspects for execution objective for Etisalat are quality, taken a toll productivity, time, and adaptability in work and steadfastness in creation. We can have a polar representation of above portrayed qualities of execution targets. Methodology Mapping Process mapping in the organizations work burden process goes as per a legitimate planning work. Procedure mapping is otherwise called diagraming of the methodology. This technique is utilized essentially for the work to be stream lined. In Etisalat, the mapping of the procedure is carried out with a specific end goal to delineate the careful succession of the assembling the telecom benefits and get the sought result. All the extra data are included the procedure mapping to make it clear that nothing gets left under the whole usage of the methodology At long last fusing is carried out to join the sub administrations or sub items to make the item or administrations complete. Like so as to make a SIM, organization needs to do different sub administrations like including telecom office in it, web, GPS, and so forth. These all are joined and introduced. Cost Specialized administrations Speed steadfastness Generation administrations Quality Flexibility a. Secondary sources Optional information will be gotten from Etisalat and its rivals, for example, Handbook, which will be useful, to give the current status of Etisalats solidified charging framework. Data from other prestigious correspondence organizations, for example, BELL and Verizon, will likewise be utilized as a source of perspective point. Information Analysis, Evaluation and Presentation Any cross-classification or gathering will be inspected by the utilization of standard measurable bundles. A qualitative information examination programming bundle will aid in coding and inferring topics from qualitative information, for example, meetings. Information will be spoken to through table, diagrams and pie outlines. 5.Collection and analysis of data Before Du was dispatched, Etisalat was an imposing business model consequently; I might want to analyze Etisalat working as a syndication and its consequences for the maker and the purchaser. A restraining infrastructures principle intention is to boost benefit and in addition deals and being the single telecom administrator in Tourist Club Area, Etisalat caught every last bit of its market and by making cost on their own terms, could accomplish a supernormal benefit which is delineated in the 1.1. The main telecom administrator accessible, Etisalat was gone along to make an assortment of administrations to meet requests which just expanded their income. Here, p speaks to the cost at which the item is sold and q the amount of the item sold. Subsequently, pxq0 speaks to the aggregate income created by Etisalat from this item. Amount sold is controlled by drawing a line qx through the convergence of Marginal Revenue (MR) and Marginal Cost (MC). qx meets the normal expense bend at y and cyq0 connotes the expenses caused. To ascertain the supernormal benefit, we must subtract the expenses acquired from the aggregate income: pxq0 cyq0 which provides for us pxyc as the benefit earned. Being a telecom syndication in Tourist Club Area turns out to be invaluable in various ways including the capacity to deliver a lower enter and offer at higher costs, exploiting the nonappearance of substitute products and climbing costs, investigating new items and administrations with the confirmation of a solid purchaser base, high hindrances to entrance which chops down all conceivable rivalry and vast economies of scale displays how with considerable economies of scale present, syndication value may be lower than cost under rivalry; amount supplied is more than that under competition.8 Actually, in an imposing business model, cost is more prominent than minimal expense which shows the non-ideal distribution of assets. Be that as it may, working as a syndication hurts the buyer as they are compelled to conform to high costs and constrained customer decision. The vicinity of a solitary telecom organization likewise turns out to be inconvenient to the nation regarding monetary welfare. Because of the low include and high costs, designation of assets has not been carried out proficiently (as demonstrated in 1.2) and this is exhibited underneath. The zone under Xyz0 shows the real income expected to be produced as indicated by value X, the cost at which there is ideal assignment of assets. In any case, Etisalat has charged a value Y which permits them to accomplish more benefit at a lower information. (The addition in benefit is delineated and marked on the graph above.) The deadweight misfortune in the outline speaks to the monetary welfare misfortune because of wasteful distribution of assets and misfortune in customer surplus, which is moved into imposing business model benefit.The 26th of July 2007[11], Du was dispatched into the telecom business sector closure Etisalats close to three many years of restraining infrastructure presence. Being a newborn child organization, Dus essential go for the time of dispatch was to make due in the business sector, not contend with Etisalat. Throughout the time of its dispatch, Du has been encountering a misfortune which is exhibited in stage 1 above because of its prime shortcomings being its powerless system scope and the solid brand steadfastness of their rival Etisalat. At that point, Du continuously will receive administrations, for example, settled lines and web administrations, like its rival which will permit it to equal the initial investment and accomplish some benefit. At the point when Du achieves its most extreme potential as a telecom administrator by mastering the embraced administrations and picking up a stronger client base, it will move to stage 3 obtaining more benefit consequently, giving rivalry to Etisalat. In 2009, Du is considered to be in stage 3 as it is producing benefit after just two years of operation 6. Findings / Results of investigation A percentage of the criminal examinations completed by the police endure setback as a result of the refusal of some real information transfers organizations in the nation to chip in with security operators, Daily Independent has learnt. A senior cop at the Federal Anti-burglary Squad (FEDSARS) at Adeniji Adele in the Lagos Island Local Government territory of Lagos State, who argued obscurity, unveiled this throughout a selective meeting with Daily Independent. He likewise included that a portion of the examinations take more of a chance in light of the fact that a few information transfers firms would not supply security operators the vital data that could encourage examination. You strike a suspected equipped criminals refuge and, may be, recoup cell telephones with SIM cards; you now approach the information transfers organization for help, yet they turn you down, so all things considered what do you do? The police boss, who was responding to the widespread instances of hijacking in Lagos, focused on that the hazard would have been stamped out if organizations like MTN and Etisalat would cast off unnecessary convention and hard-line position and hold hands with the law authorization operators in battling the wrongdoing. He expressed that the late instance of hijack of a Chinese national endured this destiny, as MTN declined to oblige examiners access to the call logs of the suspected crooks which would have made it simple for the police to find the position of the offenders and the exploited person. When we went to the MTN, they declined to provide for us the call logs. In the interim, the hijackers were utilizing MTN number to speak with the relatives of the exploited person, however MTN demanded we need to persuade court request to have the capacity to enter into their framework, that is bad enough. Likewise, Commissioner of Police, Special Fraud Unit, (SFU), Tunde Ogunsakin, additionally said his examinations of some prominent misrepresentation cases endured comparative destiny in the hands of a few information transfers organizations, particularly Etisalat. He said the office has formally whined to the Nigerian Telecommunications Commission (NCC) to predominate on the concerned information transfers organizations to see reason and help security agents in the release of their obligations. The police supervisor included that it was when agents debilitated to capture authorities of Etisalat as assistant in the wrongdoing that they reluctantly supplied the police with the data t hat were required for the examination. He requested the collaboration of the telecoms firm in the battle against wrongdoing in the nation. Be that as it may when reached, General Manager, Corporate Affairs of the MTN Nigeria, Funmi Omogbenigun, said the Inspector General (IG) of Police had affirmed a methodology for the arrival of Call Data Recording framework (Cdrs) to the Nigeria Police. I can guarantee you that MTN is completely agreeable and has been exceptionally strong of the security offices in the quest for their statutory obligations, Omogbenigun included. She demanded that the MTN gives the imperative support to help the police in the release of their obligations and has therefore gained a few honors from the Nigeria Police Force. We dont oblige a sworn oath from parts of the NPF, she said. All exertions to get the Etisalat administrations response to the police affirmation up to press time the previous evening neglected to yield result. 7. Recommendation In spite of exceptional rivalry and worldwide economic situations, Etisalat has reported united incomes of AED 26.21 bn in 2008 an expand of 22.4% in excess of 2007revenues. Income from global operations expanded by 14.7% and structured 9% of bunchs income. With the UAE portable business sector approaching immersion, the conviction is that the versatile administrators will concentrate on great quality included administrations. The movement to NGN (Next Generation Network) in UAE will empower Etisalat to further present more esteem included administrations. It is accepted that UAE will in any case be the income driver for Etisalat. A solid monetary position will empower Etisalat to keep seeking after its extension methodology and eye vital securing. The offer of global operations of the gatherings is relied upon to develop and in addition the incomes produced by them which is clear from the actuality sheets above. With the dispatch of du, the second versatile administrator in February 2007, quarterly net portable endorser increases for the aggregate market practically multiplied, arriving at a surmised 570,000 for every quarter throughout 2007, contrasted with a normal of 247,000 supporters for every quarter in 2006. They dont hope to witness a value war between the two UAE administrators in the short term, given the fundamentally more modest scale of operations that du oversees, contrasted with Etisalat. Given that the level of engineering sent by both administrators is comparative, they accept that the quality and differing qualities of packaged administrations and advancements will be the base for rivalry in the short term. 8. Conclusion Notwithstanding extreme rivalry and worldwide economic situations, Etisalat has reported merged incomes of AED 26.21 bn in 2008 an expand of 22.4% in excess of 2007revenues. Income from global operations expanded by 14.7% and framed 9% of bunchs income. With the UAE portable business approaching immersion, the conviction is that the versatile administrators will concentrate on top notch quality included administrations. The movement to NGN (Next Generation Network) in UAE will empower Etisalat to further present more esteem included administrations. It is accepted that UAE will at present be the income driver for Etisalat. A solid monetary position will empower Etisalat to keep seeking after its development technique and eye key procurement. The offer of worldwide operations of the gatherings is relied upon to develop and additionally the incomes produced by them which is clear from the truth sheets above. With the dispatch of du, the second versatile administrator in February 2007, quarterly net portable supporter augmentations for the aggregate market very nearly multiplied, arriving at a surmised 570,000 for every quarter throughout 2007, contrasted with a normal of 247,000 endorsers for every quarter in 2006. They dont hope to witness a value war between the two UAE administrators in the short term, given the essentially more modest scale of operations that du oversees, contrasted with Etisalat. Given that the level of engineering conveyed by both administrators is comparable, they accept that the quality and assorted qualities of packaged administrations and advancements will be the base for rivalry in the short term.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Information systems of ford motor company

Information systems of ford motor company Since Information System is a concept for competitive advantage which defined in the early 80s, there are lots of companies invested at information technology. Until now, there is a survey shows that information technology investment is being more and more in every company. It is showing that, Information system is a foundation for conducting business today. In many businesses, survival and the ability to achieve strategic business goals is difficult without extensive use of information technology. It is because information technology can help a company more easy to gain competitive by achieving operational excellence, developing new products and services, enhanced customer and supplier intimacy and exploiting digital markets. So nowadays, information system is very important for every company. This essay will discuss how useful of information system in business, by using Ford Motor Company as an example which using information system to enhanced customer and supplier intimacy in customer relationship management system (CRM). Ford Motor Companys organization and environment The Ford motor company was formed in 1903 by Henry Ford whose aim was to provide the people with a cheap and affordable car that any middle class employed person could own. Ford Motor Company is a famous company which selling automotive. It is also a global automotive industry leader based in Dearborn, Michigan. It manufactures or distributes automobiles across six continents. In 1995, Ford had embarked on an ambitious restructuring plan called Ford 2000, which included merging its North American, European, and international automotive operations into a single global. Ford 2000 helps company reduce the cost by reengineering and globalizing corporate organizations and processes. The major reengineering projects were initiated around major company processes such as Order to Delivery (OTD) and Ford Production System (FPS), with goals such as reducing OTD time from more than 60 days to less than 15 days. Ford also launched a public Internet site in mid- 1995; by mid- 1997 the number of visits to the site had reached more than 1 million per day. A companywide Intranet was launched in mid- 1996. And by January 1997 Ford had in place a business-to-business capability through which the Intranet could be extended in a secure manner beyond company boundaries into an Extranet potentially connecting Ford with its suppliers. Ford teamed with Chrysler and General Motors to work on the Automotive Network Exchange, which can help suppliers to manage different means of interaction with each automaker to be consistency in technology standards and processes in the supplier network. In the supply chain area, there was general agreement that information technology also could be deployed to dramatically enhance material flows and reduce inventories, substituting information for inventory, as the expression went. So in the plan of Ford 2000, for meeting the aim on reengineering projects, having a nice supply chain management systems and customer relationship management systems can help the company more close to suppliers and customers which can easy to reduce the cost on order to delivery system and ford production system. As that time Internet revolution unfolded in parallel, Ford Motor Company created new possibilities for reengineering processes within and between enterprises by using Internet. Fords Existing Supply Base The existing supply base was in many respects a product of history. Start in early 1990s, Ford had begun to try actively to decrease the number of suppliers the company dealt with directly. Rather than using a large amount to buy individual components, it shifts to have long-term relationships with a subset of very capable suppliers who would provide entire vehicle subsystems. By doing that, Ford can easier to have a well link with major suppliers which can help Ford easier to improving a range of techniques such as just-in-time and total quality management. Ford Motor Companys SCM and CRM technology of Information system Ford Production System In restructuring plan, Ford 2000, the most important is reengineering projects; one of these projects is Ford Production System, it is an information system to achieve a close relationship to suppliers. Its aim is that improve the process on making motor to be more pull-based system, with synchronized production, continuous flow, and stability throughout the process. To achieve that, Ford could tell suppliers exactly when and where certain components would be needed days in advance, and buffer stocks thus could be reduced dramatically. If this system can work successfully, the benefits would be felt throughout the supply chain. Order to Delivery For another key process Ford reengineering projects is looking for improve the customer relationship management system. The information system to do that is Order to Delivery, the purpose of this system was to reduce to 15days the time from a customers order to delivery of the finished product. The Order to Delivery vision was to create a lean, flexible, and predictable process that harmonized the efforts of all of Fords components to enable it to provide consumers with right product in right place at right time, which means that it can help Ford Motor Company meet the just-in-time technique. By achieving Order to Delivery, Ford believed that it would provide better quality, higher customer satisfaction, improved customer selection, better plant productivity, stability for its supply base, and lower dealer and company costs. Ford Retail Network On 1 July, 1998, Ford Motor Company launched the first of its Ford Retail Network ventures in Tulsa, Oklahoma, under the newly formed Ford Investment Enterprises Company. The principle of Ford Retail Network was that giving consumers the highest level of treatment and create an experience they would want to come back to again and again. The showrooms would be consolidated to focus resources on creating a superior selling experience, while the number of service outlets would increase to be closer to customer population centers. Then Ford can reduce the cost on advertising as well as more and more on using Internet to provide the service to the customers as the information system can analysis the needs for customers effectively. Using SAPÂ ® software Until now, Ford not only just follows the web-site to provide the service to customers, for achieving total supply chain visibility in real time, increasing dealer and customer service satisfaction and minimizing costs, especially ongoing IT costs, Ford also using SAPÂ ® software, to improve the performance on supply chain management and customer relationship management. Business models for Ford Motor Company Three generic strategies Cost Leadership Under Porter (1985), he regarded the selection of a defendable position within an industry as the end result of a competitive strategic analysis. He argued that successful, profitable companies generally choose to compete on either low costs or by differentiating their products to meet specific customer needs. Although these two strategic options are mutually exclusive, he added a third category of firms as niche players that serve a specific market or product segment. Porters three generic strategies are: cost leadership, differentiation and focus. Henry Ford was a farmers son whose manufacturing genius transformed life around the globe (Ford Motor Company, 2010). So that Ford Motor Company is following the business models which Henry Ford want to be. It is the cost leadership. In the automobile industry, Ford Motor Company can meet its business model, cost leadership. As Porter (1985) stated that cost leadership is about being the lowest cost producer in the industry. For an organization to gain competitive advantage, it must achieve overall cost leadership in an industry it is competing in. To lowest the cost, there are many techniques and methodology for organizations to use. Among the popular and successful techniques used by successful organizations worldwide in enhancing quality, productivity, lowering cost are six methodology, Total Quality Management (TQM), Benchmarking Competitors, Just-in-Time (JIT), Supply Chain Management (SCM), Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) and MRP solutions. When Ford Motor Company developed the information system, it is easier to achieve this business model. It is because Ford using information system to improve the relationship to customers and suppliers. Ford develop the Ford Production System can help it to improve Supply Chain Management system to be a competitive advantage. And also, the Order to Delivery system can reduce the time, which means Ford can easier to achieve the just-in-time techniques. Not only these two reasons, but also the major reason of Ford can achieve this business model, cost leadership, is that Ford through developing information system to get a power on using a cheaper price to buy the material from suppliers. By that, Ford can reduce the cost effectively, thats why Ford Motor Company can achieve cost leadership. Ford developed the information system is focus on enhanced customer and supplier intimacy, it is looking for what customers want to, not for what company what to develop. So that means, Ford is not just focus on narrow target. It is because different customers need different type of cars. Value Chain Porter (1985) stated that value chain model is a systematic way of analyzing all the firms activities and evaluating how they interact with each other. Such an examination is necessary in order to identify potential sources of competitive advantage. For Porter, the value chain can be consisted for five primary activities (including inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and service) and four support activities (including firm infrastructure, human resource management, technology development and procurement). The value chain of the Ford Motor Company is not all that different from other manufacturers in the automobile industry. However, when Ford Motor Company developed information system, it helped Ford to improve its value chain. In one of support activities, Procurement, Ford through its information system, Ford Production System, to improve the relationship of suppliers, it is not only helping Ford to reduce the cost for buying material, but also working closely with its suppliers to eliminate waste and thereby lower costs for both organizations. This should be a win-win situation for both companies and should help lift Ford from its near-last ranking in supplier relations. The next activity for information system to improve is technology development. Ford through the information system, Ford Retail Network, to understand the value of consumer input and what consumer needed, which can help Ford easier to design a successful modern design technologies. They have initiated tailoring design models after public demand. This method has proven highly successful in recent financial periods. Marketing is also a very important aspect of the Ford. By using Ford Retail Network system, Ford has been working together with dealers or buys all dealers to collect more information to create marketing strategies that help boost sales. This is proven to be the primary basis for the consumers perceived values. Ford has also teamed-up with Caterpillar Logistics and SAP to improve warehousing and its Daily Parts Advantage network for getting spare parts to their dealers. Their hope in partnering with Cat Logistics was to secure a partner with expertise in the automotive supply chain, laying a foundation for development of a new information system. The goal was to obtain end-to-end visibility of service parts, increase the speed of time to market, optimize inventories at each location, and do a better job serving the customer (Supply Chain Brain). Along with Cat Logistics and SAP, Ford is also using an SAS platform that supports customer relationship management (CRM). This SAS platform enhances Fords existing customer relationship database and provides a powerful base for information analysis, data mining and predictive modeling thus enabling highly effective reporting, trending, segmentation, customer scoring, and customer life-cycle analysis all of which support key activities for CRM. As information system can improve lots of activities in value chain, it can help the company to gain the competitive advantage. Problems and challenges in the development of the Information System When Ford Motor Company developed the information system, it needs to face lots of challenges. Here are some of them. Costly and timely As Ford is a large company, it is very costly on developing information system. There are complex pieces of software which Ford developed to achieve its competitive advantage. To develop these large system, Ford need to spend its recourses. Not only the cost on buying software and hardware of the system, but also other cost such as consulting fees, personnel costs, training. Also, most of them need to spend time to develop. For Ford Motor Company, it has large team on Information Technology, which needs to hire lots of employees to work. There are costly on the salaries and also it needs spend over one mouth to train the employees to understand the system and use the system. As Ford adopts an enterprise application from SAP, it is very costly to switch SAP and it become dependent on SAP to upgrade its product and maintain its installation. Hard to collect information Some of the information systems which developed by Ford focus on supply chain management. These systems require multiple organizations to share information and business processes. It is difficult for each participant to change of its process and the way it uses information to create a system that best serves the supply chain as whole. Also, there are different policies in different company; Ford cannot collect the information fully for its suppliers as some of the information may be the secrecy. Hard to handle the technology As the technology of information system such as internet is growth quickly, it is not easy for Ford Motor Company to understand clearly about the technology, it will be a risk on losing money when develop that technology. So when developing the information system, Ford needs to make sure it understands what is its usage clearly. Conclusion In short, Ford uses information technology on business manager, SCM and CRM, for enhanced customer and supplier successfully. It can see that information system can help Ford achieve its business model. Nowadays, every company will develop the information system to achieve competitive, most of them have the e-business, too. It is surly that information system is a very useful and major tool to help company to meet their aims. However, it does not mean have information system can help the company to do a successful business, because the most important is that company have a correct business strategy. As the example on Ford, its business model is cost leadership; it is a great competitive advantage at early 1900s when Ford provided Model T cars. However, following the change of environment, it is not work now. So, if a company want to achieve competitive, it is not only focusing on develop information system, but also focusing on the business strategy.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Shakespeares Childhood :: essays research papers

Life as a Child in the Renaissance   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  There have been many classic rag-to-riches stories, and while they may seem almost clichà ©, there are so few that are overlooked. For example, many musicians in the rock era who we know today grew up in lesser homes, and they struggled to earn a dime. Elton John, as well known and wealthy as he is today, spent the greater part of 10 years fighting diligently to fill small clubs to make a living off of his wonderful musical talent. While it may be hard for many people to believe, not all quintessential icons in our day were bathed from golden faucets in oversized mansions; quite the contrary, rather. The famous William Shakespeare is a thriving example of this theory; however, there is a main difference between Shakespeare’s fame from the normal rag-to-riches story, and his eminence is most comparable to Van Gogh. During the time when he was alive, his literature was not taken seriously. It was merely viewed as a form of writing not meant to be explored, and much less, praised. Aside from this, he came from an extremely poverty-stricken family, where most of them died from diseases. Also, the quality of education in those days was determined by how much money families could lay down to have their children accepted into pristine schools, which was not possible for the great William Shakespeare. In Shakespeares’ days of inadequate education, he must have had a very strong ambition to become a world-reknown writer and poet.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  As mentioned, Shakespeare’s family was plagued with much sickness, and it spread like wildfire since they were such a large family crammed into a small, musty English cottage. Third-born William was accompanied by his 6 siblings, Joan, Margaret, Gilbert, Amney, Richard, and Edmund. According to â€Å"In the Days of Shakespeare’s Childhood,† most of his siblings lived only into their teen years due to diseases such as yellow fever and malaria. Because of so many child deaths, the exact number of children is debatable, because many died before coming out of infanthood. In fact, when William was born to his parents, John and Mary, he was the first surviving infant. To give an idea of just how many people were affected by various diseases of the time, as stated by John F. Andrews, in 1592, there were 15,000 deaths. This number was significant enough to have the globe theater close down! The home they grew up on was in Stratford-Upon-Avon on Henley Street, a small village that now houses his home as a

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

President Abraham Lincoln Essay -- American History

On the fourth of March in 1861, Abraham Lincoln became the sixteenth President of the United States of America. President Lincoln was born on the twelfth of February in 1809 in a log cabin located in Hodgenville, Kentucky, and died at the age of fifty-six on the fifteenth of April in 1865 in Washington, D.C. In 1834, Abraham Lincoln was elected as a member of the Whig party into the Illinois state legislature. Being involved with politics helped form and shape his view about slavery. Lincoln then began teaching himself about law using William Blackstone’s Commentaries on the Laws of England. In 1837, Abraham Lincoln moved to Springfield, Illinois, and started working at the John T. Stuart Law Firm. After working as a lawyer for a few years, Lincoln had the privilege of serving a term in the United States House of Representatives from 1847 to 1849. During his term in the House of Representatives, Abraham Lincoln voiced his opposition to the Mexican-America, which made hi m unpopular and caused his decision of not running for another term. After leaving the United States House of Representatives, Lincoln returned to his lawyer profession back in Springfield, Illinois. Abraham then became more involved with politics once again when congress passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act which allowed individual states to choose whether they were free or slave states, in 1854. In 1856, his feelings about slavery were heightened, and he decided to join the Republican Party. During the year of 1858, Abraham Lincoln flipped politics upside down and exposed many things about the government. Doing this, Lincoln became very popular with politics. In 1860, Abraham Lincoln began campaigning for President of the United States. As previously st... ...014. . "Native American Atrocities - The Sand Creek Massacre." Last of the Independents - An Independent Web Designer. Web. 15 Dec. 2014. . "Our Documents - Home." Welcome to Web. 15 Dec. 2014. . "Our Documents - Home." Welcome to Web. 15 Dec. 2014. . "PBS - THE WEST - The Homestead Act (1862)." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. Web. 15 Dec. 2014. . "The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow . Jim Crow Stories . Freedmen's Bureau | PBS." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. Web. 15 Dec. 2014. .

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Liberal Nature of Indian State Essay

The state is being perceived as an â€Å"organised structural and institutional whole† epitomizing the power relations of society. The state in a developing society arise from historical factors and interacts with society through its decisive role in the economic process of the nation. To study the nature of any particular state, it is necessary to analyse to relation between state, power, and social classes and the purpose of the state. The liberal democratic form stands on the foundation of democracy. The liberal critique of the Indian state can be read in the writings of Rajni Kothari, Atul Kohli, The Rudolphs, Gunnar Myrdal. The state is associated with modernity. The idea of nation is also linked with the state and is encompassed within it. The liberal movement did not develop in India, as in Europe, in response to the challenge of aggression of king but after a long anti-colonial struggle against the British Raj which culminated in the Partition of India and its Independence in 1947. The Constitution which was drawn up shortly after was essentially liberal in character. It was a product of the Western impact through British rule and contributed to India’s constitutional and political development. The constitution declared it as a sovereign socialist republic democratic country. Thus, Indian state is characterized as a liberal democratic model which provides for separation of powers and fundamental rights to the people. Moreover India is a representative form of government, where elections are held on the basis of universal adult franchise. Ram Mohan Roy, with whom the history of Indian liberalism begins, showed great concern for social reform and the upliftment of women, education as a means of social transformation, freedom of press and no censorship, all of which were inherited by the great liberals of India. Jawaharlal Nehru, ‘the chief architect’ of the modern Indian State,  considered the state to be the ‘trustee and guardian’ of the Indian people by looking after democratic aspirations and providing economic welfare. The influence of Nehru in the Indian state can be seen in the economic front, as it adopted the socialist path of development with a focus on planning for economic development. India’s liberalism in the modern period may best be described as a re-articulation, a re-articulation that was undoubtedly called forth by the new knowledge, enlightenment, political institutions and social patterns which Britain brought with her. The liberal view of the state is typically strong. Institutional strength is key in this and state and society remains separate. The state has to remain relatively autonomous from society. Legitimacy is also an important part of the liberal state, and this term started to be used in India especially during the 1975 emergency. India has been characterised as a ‘soft’ and ‘weak’ state by Gunnar Myrdal. The problem of a soft state is the crisis of legitimacy. Liberal critics have characterised India as a liberal state with strong institutions of the Parliament, independent judiciary, executive, along with fundamental rights and directive principles of state policy. Rajni Kothari argued that the Indian state sought to legitimise itself as an order-maintaining institution. The Nehruvian model succeeded during Nehru’s time, but gradually the masses awakened and pressure for redistributive politics grew. Moreover the state was becoming more centralised and lost its mediating structures of the party system. Ashis Nandy, an Indian political psychologist, envisaged the state as a protector of the interests of the Indian people from outsiders. Although, he noted that the state itself subjected the masses to oppression through institutional structures. He argued that it was preferable as the oppression worked from within and not arbitrarily. Atul Kohli explains the Indian state through its paradoxical apparatus of state government arising from growth of centralisation and powerlessness at the centre. Centralisation erodes the legitimacy of the state and its developmental power. Gunnar Myrdal criticized the inability of the state to enforce public policies to eradicate poverty or to enforce laws and dubbed the institutional model of the Indian state as â€Å"soft state†. According to Myrdal, the Indian state was soft as it had no power to rectify institutions that stood in the way of reform and development. As a result, it could not tackle the institution of caste directly, take measures of effective land reform, eradicate corruption or enforce ideas of development effectively through the people. One consequence of this softness has been the growth of left-wing extremism, which Manmohan Singh called the â€Å"gravest internal threat† to the country’s security. Myrdal’s ‘hard state’ would have been able to tackle Naxalism which has gravely affected the nation. The liberal approach focuses on institutions and processes to understand state and political power in India. The state is considered the central instrument of social progress and principal agent of transformation. According to the Rudolphs, there are two groups characterised in the Indian state, one being the ‘owners of production’ and the other being the ‘labourer’ group. They analysed the state as a mediator between these two conflicting groups, and in doing so, must remain autonomous in order to maintain structural unity of the state. The role of the state would hence be the â€Å"third actor†. The Rudolphs believe in the capability of India to become a strong state, unlike the weak state that Myrdal argued. The Rudolphs’ liberal perspective was directed at constitutional strength and legitimacy, citizen as an abstract category, and institutional strength in the form of bureaucracy which defined the identity of liberalism in the  Indian state. The bureaucracy played an important role in policy making and reflects good governance. The expertise of the members would provide efficient decision making. Liberal institutionalists believe in strengthening institutions to achive a strong state through legitimacy. This extra autonomy of legitimacy derived from law and ability to rule gets rid of the crisis of legitimacy which is a problem of the Soft State as Myrdal puts it. Before the emergence period of 1975, India had a paradoxical apparatus of state government. The excess power in the centre made the peripheries unstable, causing the core and periphery to constantly break in tussle. This led to a loss of faith from the people’s side, and re-institutionalising of the state during Indira Gandhi’s time. The bureaucracy also faces criticisms on account of maintaining neutrality arises if every rule is made by experts. And if the state becomes too reliant on expertise, it becomes idealist in nature. The Rudolph’s Command Polity talks about the state becoming the utmost power. The Rudolphs pointed out that India is a state that works and derives its legitimacy from demand.This polity in India gave way to crisis. State is not an entity which has always remained stab le. Reflection of individual liberties are a part of democratic liberalism. Demands from the lower class have to be included to maintain stability. The Marxist view sees the Indian state as a bourgeois state – where the benefits are only with the big industrialists and rich farmers. Though this nature does not completely dominates the state it exercises a powerful influence over the Indian state. India has a highly plural society marked by various ethnic groups of different language and different religion. After independence India has experienced difficulty to maintain its unity. But growth of violence, regionalism, poverty, slow development of economy has questioned the working  of Indian state and its nature. The impact of social rule is visible in India. Recently, faith in democratic, institution, redistributions, justice and secularism seems to be eroded in Indian state. However, the state continues to solve conflicting interest and development problem. Threats to individual freedom make it necessary for individuals to organise for civil liberties and constantly explore new realms for free expression. To create stability, the Indian state has to be strong. Thus today’s India stands as a political and economic paradox of a rich – poor nation with a weak – strong state. BIBLIOGRAPHY Indian Government and Politics- Sunder Raman Indian Political System – M.P Singh & Roy The Centrist Future of Indian Politics – Susanne Rudolph and Lloyd Rudolph

Monday, September 16, 2019

Achievements and Complaints of India Today Group Essay

Operating for 36 years now, the company has consistently maintained incomparable goodwill and rapport in the market. The India Today Group continues to be the best and has steadily bagged major awards and notched up achievements over the years, some of which are: * Its news channel Aaj Tak won the Indian Telly Award for Best Hindi News Channel for the 10th consecutive year in 2010. * The Editor-in-Chief of Aaj Tak, Prabhu Chawla, won the Best News and Current Affairs Anchor Award at the Indian Telly Awards 2009. * The India Today Group publishes the Cosmopolitan magazine in India and has been featuring awards for Fun and Fearless Male and Female of the Year since 2002. * Cosmopolitan also showcases awards for the Best Bachelor of the Year. * Cosmopolitan further promoted the Practice Safe Sun campaign that fights against skin cancer * The India Today Group organizes several events like the India Today Conclave and ACUMEN, which deals with some of the major issues and businesses in the country. * The Vasant Valley School was started by the India Today Group to encourage education for all in the country. CONTROVERSIES AND COMPLAINTS In the recorded conversations between Nira Radia and prominent figures, referred to as the Radia Tapes, several prominent figures are heard in conversation with Radia amongst them were Prabhu Chawla, editor of India Today magazine and Shankar Aiyar, then with India Today Group . ONLINE CHEATING AND SCAM BY BAGITTODAY an INDIA TODAY Group: The company, bagittoday,an india today group company,known in ecommrce as living media india ltd cheated many people by not giving them promised service, gifts and evn asking the people for account nos with passwords . They realise payments through credit card/Online banking and do not send the material. October 14 was a sad day for Union Law Minister Salman Khurshid and the India Today group, which owns a number of print journals and TV channels, says B Raman A non-governmental humanitarian trust for assisting physically disadvantaged people with which Khurshid’s wife Louise is reportedly associated has been the target of allegations of wrongful use of funds amounting to approximately Rs 80 lakh sanctioned by the government for humanitarian relief. A Hindi TV channel of the India Today group and the India Against Corruption group headed by Arvind Kejriwal, a non-governmental activist, have been spearheading the campaign against Khurshid on these allegations against the humanitarian trust. The two campaigns have been trying to project themselves as separate from each other without any orchestrated co-ordination, but an undeclared, but evident convergence of objective between the two is discernible to any objective observer. That objective is to exploit the suspected misuse of the funds to cause public discomfiture to Khurshid.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Sam’s Club and Costco

There are many positives that can be drawn from the way that Costco runs and controls its business. Costco’s motto is â€Å"To continuously provide our members with quality goods and services at the lowest possible prices† (Thompson, Strickland, Gamble, 2010). They have stuck to this mantra by providing affordable memberships to its customers, and affordable pricing of its merchandise. Costco’s strategy of low pricing and limited product line and selection made Costco successful by keeping their margins below their competitors; this is a positive in that it will draw more customers and more accounts for the growth and prosperity of the business. Costco’s limited product line and selection is also a positive because unlike it competitors, Costco offers efficiency in its sale process and makes it easier for the business to be managed. Sinegal stated that â€Å"If you have ten customers in to buy Advil, how many are not going to but any because you just have one size? Maybe one or two, we refer to that as the intelligent loss of sales† (Thompson, Strickland, Gamble, 2010). Another positive is Costco’s approach to treasure-hunt shopping. Costco tries to intrigue its customers by creating a sense of urgency with certain products that are high-end and that the company knows will sell-out quickly. Although these items a lot of times are higher priced, they still are reasonably lower than the average department store or its membership warehouse competitors. The only negative would be Costco’s marketing and advertising strategy. Although the stores reputation and low pricing have constituted in the franchises high level of success, their marketing strategy is lacking some key elements. Costco believes that direct mailings was the best possible marketing and advertising strategy but are missing out on the possibility of gaining a higher number of customers due to their lack of internet presence. The key factor that comes to mind is that Costco doesn’t offer a list of their store items online, which doesn’t give a consumer who isn’t familiar with the store a chance get the full spectrum of what they truly offer. Although Costco 3 Costco is a large franchise, in most cases; word of mouth simply won’t get a business the clientele they truly need to be successful or a leader in their respective arena. There were two strategic elements utilized by Costco that were insightful, the first being how Costco developed its personnel from within. The case of Jim Sinegal comes to light. When Sol Price made Jim Sinegal the manager of the original Price Club, he knew that Jim had a special knack for discount retailing and for spotting what a store was doing wrong (usually either not being in the right merchandise categories or not selling items at the right price points) very things that was good at and that were at the roots of Price’s Club growing success in the marketplace (Thompson, Strickland, Gamble, 2010). Sinegal applied this same concept when he partnered with Jeff Brotman, who was the elevated to vice chairman in 1993 and then to chairman in 1994. This strategic element is what made both Price Club and Costco very successful. The second strategic element that was insightful was the way in which Costco formulated its strategy on low prices and its limited product and selection. Costco’s view of the intelligent loss of sales, proved viable because they were willing to lose one or two customers to capture a higher number of clientele in the long run, and adhering to this strategy makes their business efficient and profitable. The formulation of strategy must take into consideration important external parties. For Costco, the competitor and their targeted customers were two constituencies. How was their strategy influenced by these parties? Did their strategy reflect adequate consideration of the needs of these two groups? Costco’s strategy was definitely influenced by its customers and its competitor. From a competitor’s standpoint Costco wanted to a provide services, prices, and products that rivaled its competitor Sam’s Club. Costco’s combining of high quality and low prices id the driving for behind Costco’s success. It is evident that Sam Walton, with Wal-Mart and Sam’s club played an integral part in the way the Costco has devised its strategy. Costco’s average pay, for example, is $17 an hour and is 42% higher than its fiercest rival Sam’s Club. Costco’s health plan also makes other retailers look Scroogish, Costco’s workers were only paying just 4 percent toward their health costs and raised it to only 8 percent when Sam’s Club and the retail average is at 25 percent (Bowmer, 2007). Costco isn’t simply looking to be better that the competition they want Costco 4 to be demonstrably better,† said John Matthews, Costco’s senior vice president for human resources (Bowmer, 2007). From the customer’s standpoint Costco looks to keep increasing its consumer base by providing low prices that aren’t coming at the workers’ expense, they believe this is the key to providing a good service and good business as a whole. Costco caters to the customer, by not becoming a casualty in the pricing war among retailers and wholesale club industries alike. A cardinal rule that has been implemented is that no item can be marked up by more than 14 percent and no private label item by more than 15 percent. In contract supermarkets generally mark up merchandise by 25 percent and department stores by 50 percent (Bowmer, 2007). Costco strives to be good merchants and offer the greatest value to the customer, Costco constantly strives to figure out how they are going lower their prices while their competition looks for ways to get to get more money for their items. Costco has a good understanding of its customers and knows that they don’t gain clientele by having fancy displays and mascots etc†¦ they know that the values they have attract and keep customers coming back, as well as attract new prospects. The company’s knack for adjusting and seeing things in a new way explains how Costco’s customers influence on the decisions and strategies set forth by the company. Costco’s strategy reflects adequate consideration of its customers and capitalizes on the needs that its competitors have. One can draw this conclusion because Costco has diagnosed what the customer needs, values and wants from a proprietor, and also have evaluated what the competition is lacking and perfected their mantra of providing low prices and quality products and services. They have formulated strong objectives that benefit their workers, customers and shareholders, and strategized a plan to be more successful than the competitor with a business model than can be considered overly generous in regards to its customers and workers in comparison to the competition.