Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Is it possible to demonstrate that a sociological analysis of the body and its varied states shed ‘light’ on the experiences of embodiment?
In order to evaluate the extent in which sociological analysis sheds light on the experience of embodiment it is essential that we first break down the meanings behind the question. The concept of embodiment is derived from the phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty, who argued: Ã¢â¬Å"that to the experience the world, we have to perceive itÃ¢â¬ ¦. the embodiment of the human being is fundamental.Ã¢â¬ (cited in Reber & Reber 2001. p115). Reber & Reber (2001) go on to explain embodiment as the mode by which human beings practically engage and interact with the world. The experience of having a body alters in relation to the particular condition, or state, of the body at any one time. These varied states can include differences in long or short-term health or, for example, whether the body is in pain or not at a particular time. Other states can include diversity in age, or just altered states such as pregnancy. The sociological analysis of any subject matter involves having the ability to trace links between the wider society and the lives of the individuals within it, having an awareness of social structures. In contrast to sociological theories are those within the biological essentialist paradigm, whose explanations reduce the understanding of the body into terms of the physiological and absolute. This essay will attempt to illustrate the importance of the sociological explanation in understanding the body and its varied states, whilst highlighting the limitations of the more essentialist approach. The health and illness of the human body has traditionally been defined in terms of the biomedical model, which is based upon the reliance of scientific facts. The body is seen as a primarily biological entity thus ignoring external, environment factors, such as the family and the education system, shaping our bodies and minds. The idea that the mind and body are separate entities emanates from Descartes, dating back to the eighteenth century. A time, known as the enlightenment, when societies would come to depend more and more on scientific and rational explanations at the expense of religious explanations. There was an apparent move towards a more physiological and essentialist understanding of everyday life and a dramatic decline in more spiritual and less scientific explanations. Health and illness is traditionally described in a medical way. Pregnancy, for example, although a natural state for the female body, has undergone extreme medical intervention. Martin (1987) suggests that giving birth is in fact so medicalised that it can be described as Ã¢â¬Å"work done by the uterusÃ¢â¬ . She goes on to create a convincing analogy between the Ã¢â¬Ëjob' of having a baby and the ability of women as workers to resist their conditions. The essentialist argument is argued to be both narrow in its assumptions regarding the body and the individual's ability to have free will. The theorists ignore the impact of external factors, arguing that all human behaviour is innate and fixed. In modern times, largely due to a more sociological understanding of the mind and body, it is understood that they in fact work together much more closely than ever realised before, and thus the concept of mind-body dualism is introduced. White (2002) argues that on the basis of empirical research sociologists demonstrate how the interactions of social class, power, gender and ethnicity enter into the formation of knowledge about the treatment of a sickness or disease. The social production and distribution of diseases and illnesses, illustrate how these varied states could be differently understood, treated and experienced by demonstrating how disease is produced out of social organisation rather than nature, biology or individual lifestyle choices. White (2002) also suggests that our knowledge of health and illness, the organisations of the professions which deal with it and our own responses to our bodily states are shaped and formed by the history of our society and our place in it. He criticises medical explanations, stating that they only serve to obscure, or completely cover, the social shaping and distribution of disease, disease categories and health services. Firstly we must consider more traditional sociological theories such as functionalism, mostly illustrated by Parsons' concept of Ã¢â¬Ëthe sick role', a social role that is shaped by the social restrains of modern society. The focus is on how being ill must take a specific form in human societies in order that the social system's stability and cohesion can be maintained. Parsonian sociology emphasises the role of medicine in maintaining social harmony, pointing to the non-market basis of professional groups. Highlighting the social control of medicine in enforcing compliance with social roles in modern society. Marxist approaches emphasize the causal role of economics in the production and distribution of disease, as well as the role of medical knowledge in sustaining the class structure. Marxists are concerned with the relationship between health and illness and capitalist social organisation. Feminists' key argument is that the way in which we are socialized into masculine and feminine social roles will have a determining effect on our health and illness. They argue that medicine plays a vital role in enforcing conformity because controlling women's ability to reproduce is central to a patriarchal society. Feminists argue that the majority of medical attention paid to women is around their reproductive organs and their life cycle Marxist-feminists identify the ways in which class and patriarchy interact to define the subordinate position of women in society and the central role that medical knowledge plays in defining women. In contrast to these more structural approaches the interactionists would argue the focus should be directed at the way illness is a social accomplishment between actors rather than merely a matter of physiological malfunction (Bilton et al 1997). Self-identity has become more fluid and negotiable, separated from Ã¢â¬Ësocial structures', which are often claimed to be just a figment of the sociological imagination. For some theorists the discovery of the body, linked to these weakened structures, has led to the argument that we construct our bodies as we see fit. White (2002) emphasises the openness of the body, and of the individuals that shape it. More recent notions of the body have examined the cultural meanings placed upon it, desirable body size, weight and shape etc. There has been much sociological research into understanding the ideas behind the individual's concept of Ã¢â¬Ëthe self'. Much of this work is revolving around bodily appearance and individual self-perception, labels given to us by others and ourselves. Tyler (1998) investigated the recruitment and training of female flight attendants, concluding that their work: Ã¢â¬Å"involved adhering to culturally prescribed norms on femininity as well as organisational regulations governing her figureÃ¢â¬ Feminists' reactions to the way in which medicine Ã¢â¬Ëmedicalises' their bodies have raised crucial issues at the centre of sociological explanations of disease. Illnesses are not simply deviations from the body's normal functioning, being ill can have a number of meanings that extend beyond a simple biomedical one. Sontage (1991) shows how TB and AIDS have attached meanings, so that they become Ã¢â¬Ëdirty' and Ã¢â¬Ëunclean' illnesses that Ã¢â¬Ëinvade' the body. People who suffer from such stigmatised illnesses may well change the way they view their bodies and their own self-identity is affected, thus an illustration of mind-body dualism. Goffman, a key interactionist, theory of the body can be summarised by three main features. Firstly, that you can view the body as a material, communicating entity, controlled by individuals in order to facilitate and direct social interaction. Secondly, the meanings attributed to the body are determined by shared vocabularies of non-verbal language, such as facial expression and dress, which are not under the immediate control of individuals but which nevertheless categorise and differentiate between people. Thirdly, the body mediates the relationship between people's self-identity and their social identity, two quite different states. Consequently, these classifications greatly influence how individuals seek to manage their bodies and they way in which their bodies are perceived. In addition to its reflections on economic, social and political changes in society postmodernism is characterised by a mistrust of Ã¢â¬Ëscience' as the truth. Senior (1996) suggests that people are more accepting of their own understanding of the world. Post modernists claim that no single theory can explain such a wide variation of experiences. Power is of crucial concern, not only economic power but also in the form of language, or discourse. Knowledge of the body becomes power, possessors of this knowledge can exercise control over those without, for example the doctor/patient relationship. Foucault, an extreme social constructionist, highlights the social role of medical knowledge in controlling populations. Similarly to Parsons, Foucault emphasises the diverse nature of power relationships in modern society, describing the emergence of a dominant medical discourse, which has constructed definitions of normality and deviance. For Foucault modern societies are systems of organised surveillance with individuals conducting the surveillance themselves, having internalised the Ã¢â¬Ëprofessional models' of what is appropriate behaviour. The usefulness of Foucault's position is the way in which he historically locates medical knowledge, especially in allowing for the development of the sociology of the body. By showing how the body is historically constructed, Foucault has been accepted and adapted by feminists, known as Foucauldian-feminisms, who show that it is in fact the construction of gender specific bodies that needs analysis. Okely (1993) writes a subjective account of her time spent at an all-girls boarding school, linking her experiences of class, gender and power inequalities, and the impact of these inequalities on the human body. She also refers to Mauss (1936) in her writings and the way in which it is discussed that different societies, groups and even forms of education make different uses of the body. These uses may and have often been documented to change over time and in individual variations. Mauss (1936) isolates three factors that are involved in understanding the body; those are social, psychological and biological (as cited in Okely 1993. p111). Okely (1993) talks of her constant attempts to convince Ã¢â¬Ëthe authorities', for example teachers, that she had internalised the institutions way of life, of being a Ã¢â¬Ëlady' however, her body often let her down. She goes on to recall that the Ã¢â¬Å"minutest gesture could betray a lack of conviction, a failure of conversionÃ¢â¬ (Okely 1993. p112). Children and adolescents are the most vulnerable to these outside influences, which often permanently shape their minds and bodies. Okely cited a former resident that had attempted to train to become an opera singer, but who could not breath deeply enough. She believed this to be due to a constant requirement to stand tall and firm, therefore, leading the chest to become too Ã¢â¬Ërigidly encased'. The girl obviously saw a connection with her education and her bodily state. In an attempt to draw attention to the social and individual impact of merely wearing a badge on the left or right side of your uniform, Okely highlights that in many cultures the right and left sides of the body, for example the hands, are used to represent symbolic and social oppositions. Ã¢â¬Å"the right is given pre-eminence and may be associated with order, legitimacy and the male while the left can be associated with disorder, disruptive forces and the femaleÃ¢â¬ (Hertz 1960 as cited by Okely 1993. p115.) In an effort to transform society, social constructionists inevitably raise questions about the past and the future, as they call into question prevailing ideological frameworks. Social constructionist approaches call attention to the paradox between the historically variable ways in which culture and society construct seemingly stable reality. Social constructionist theory suggests that sexuality is a fluid and changeable entity, the product of human action and history rather than the result of the body, biology or an innate sex drive, as essentialism would suggest. Vance (1994) in her research into female sexuality, which can also be seen as a varied state, uses the example of female circumcision. She illustrates that social constructionists have not ignored the body, its function and physiology, and still in fact have the ability to incorporate the body with it's theory without returning to essentialism. From a sociological perspective, biology is by no means the overriding factor in the development of a disease. Rather, as White (2002) suggests, it is the prevailing social and economic conditions that allow a disease to develop which must be accounted for. Furthermore; Ã¢â¬Å"given that germs do not speak for themselves, it is our interpretation of events that leads some conditions to be categorised as diseases.Ã¢â¬ (White 2002. p12) But to what extent has the sociological analysis of the body and its varied states shed Ã¢â¬Ëlight' on the experiences of embodiment? It is clear from the brief evidence summarised above and the reading available on the subject that the essentialist explanation of the body in incomplete. As with any aspect of human society the impact of the relationship between the individual and his/her surroundings must be taken into consideration. There is much work to be undertaken in this area of study and many more links, or dualisms, to be uncovered.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Gary Marx stated Ã¢â¬Å"identifying, monitoring and considering the implications of trends is one of the most basic processes for creating the futureÃ¢â¬ (Stevenson, 2010 p. 1). The world of education is forever changing at a pace that gets more rapid as the years go on. The decisions made in the past have laid the foundation of education today, as will recent changes affect the future. Programs such as choice schooling and No Child Left Behind will impact school funding. Rulings such as the Lemon Test and separation of church and state will impact decisions that can potentially result in litigation and court rulings dictating educational decisions. In his work regarding educational trends, Kenneth Stevenson (2010) stated, Ã¢â¬Å"a continuing recession, escalating political polarization, rising racial/ethnic tensions, a growing national debt, and a widening divide between the haves and the have nots portend a future fraught with unprecedented challenges to and clashes over the form and substance of public education in AmericaÃ¢â¬ (p.1). Analysis of the Lemon Test The Lemon Test was created by Chief Justice Warren Berger as a result of the court case Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) and is based on the principles stated in Everson v. Board of Education. The case of Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) centered on Rhode IslandÃ¢â¬â¢s Salary Supplement Act. This act approved a salary supplement of up to fifteen percent for teachers who taught secular subjects in private religious schools or non-public elementary schools. The courts determined that approximately twenty-five percent of Rhode IslandÃ¢â¬â¢s students attended non-public schools. Furthermore, ninety-five percent of the parochial schools were Roman Catholic. Pennsylvania offered a similar program that reimbursed non-public schools for expenses related to secular education and required schools to account for the expenses separately. Approximately twenty percent of PennsylvaniaÃ¢â¬â¢s children attended non-public schools and ninety-six percent of the schools had a religious affiliation. The high courts looked at its own precedents and determined that, in orderÃ for a law to be in compliance with the Establishment clause it, Ã¢â¬Å"must have a secular legislative purpose; second, its principal or primary effect must be one that neither advances nor inhibits religion; finally, the statute must not foster Ã¢â¬Å"an excessive government entanglement with religionÃ¢â¬ (Barnes, 2010, p. 2-3). The Lemon test was created to, Ã¢â¬Å"determine when a law has the effect of establishing religionÃ¢â¬ (The Basics, 2014, p. 3). The court applied the Lemon test to the Pennsylvania and Rhode Island supplemental funding programs and deemed that the programs in both states were unconstitutional (The Lemon Test, 2009). Both programs met the first requirement of the Lemon test as they had a secular purpose. However, the court determined that it was unclear if the programs met the second set of criteria as Ã¢â¬Å"while the aid was intended for secular use, it was not entirely secular in effectÃ¢â¬ (The Lemon Test, 2009, p. 1). The court decided that it did not need to establish if the programs met the second part of the Lemon test as they failed to meet the third criterion as both programs Ã¢â¬Å"excessively entangling state administrators with the operations of parochial schoolsÃ¢â¬ (The Lemon Test, 2009, p. 1). The Lemon test has Ã¢â¬Å"become an extremely influential legal doctrine, governing not only cases involving government funding of religious institutions but also cases in which the government promoted religious messages. Over the years, however, many justices have criticized the test because the court has often applied it to require a strict separation between church and stateÃ¢â¬ (The Lemon Test, 2009, p. 1). The test has been the foundation for many of the courtÃ¢â¬â¢s ruling regarding the establishment clause since 1971. The Ã¢â¬Å"choiceÃ¢â¬ Ã The idea of vouchers for education was first introduced in early 1950 in a move to privatize education. In that same year, as a result of Brown v. Board of Education, the southern states put the first voucher program into action as a way to Ã¢â¬Å"enable white students of all income levels to attend the segregation academies and continue receiving a publicly-funded, all white educationÃ¢â¬ (Save our Schools NJ, 2014). In 1989, WisconsinÃ¢â¬â¢s more modern voucher programs, focused on poor children of all races. (Save our Schools NJ, 2014). Regardless of the nature of the voucher program, the impact is the same- taxpayer funds being diverted from public school funding. In 2002, the Supreme Court ruling of the case of Zelman V. Simmons-HarrisÃ stated that it was not a violation of the Establishment Clause to provide scholarships for so me students to attend private or parochial schools. This ruling had a subsequent impact on the development of S1872, also known as the Opportunity Scholarship Act. This act allowed for vouchers to go to private or religious schools. Changes from S1872 resulted in an almost $1 billion dollar revenue loss for school funding by the end of its fifth year (NJEA, 2011). In addition to the government revenue lost, a 100% tax credit is given to companies who donate to these funds thus losing additional revenue. The children given these scholarship vouchers are children from targeted failing school areas, which then result in that already failing district to lose additional weighted funding for those children. Ã¢â¬Å"Shifting a handful of students from a public school into private schools will not decrease what the public school must pay for teachers and facilities, but funding for those costs will decrease as students leaveÃ¢â¬ (NCSL, 2014). A study by the American Federation of Teachers in 2011 looked at the revenue lost in several states as a result of money being diverted to voucher programs. In most cases, these programs obtained funding by either increasing taxes or by reducing state aid to local school districts. Both the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program and the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program did just that. The Milwaukee program, in 2009, cost taxpayers roughly $130 million and the Cleveland program reduced Disadvantaged Pupil Impact Aid to the Cleveland public schools by $11,901,887 in 2007 (American Federation of Teachers, 2011). One of the most significant issues with voucher programs is the fact that they do not have the same monitoring and regulations as public schools in order to obtain funding. Ã¢â¬Å"Perhaps the biggest critique of market-based reforms, such as school choice and performance based accountability is that they will further exacerbate inequalities in educationÃ¢â¬ (Fusarelli and Young, 2011, p. 92). Not all program funding is distributed in the programs based on poverty. Parents of special education students are not guaranteed special education services. In addition, many programs are not monitored for the way they appropriate money. When a review of the Arizona tax credit programs was conducted, it was discovered that Ã¢â¬Å"almost two-thirds of all voucher orga nizations kept more funds for overhead than allowed under state lawÃ¢â¬ (AFT, 2011, p. 7). Per student revenue that local districts lose toÃ these programs is not guaranteed to be 100% applied to the students attending the private school. In 2011, the U.S. Department of Education had a budget cut of $5 billion (The Education Trust, n.d.). In 2013-2014, over 35 states are providing less funding per students, more than 10% in fourteen of them. (Leachman & Mai, 2014). With decreasing numbers such as these, voucher programs only continue to threaten to take limited funding away from local districts. Continued funding cuts will have an impact on the economic future of our country. As stated by Brimley et al. Ã¢â¬Å"the more education provided, the more wealth developed; the more wealth created, the more funds available for investment; the more investment undertaken, the more wealth available for investment in physical and human capital: (Brimley et al., 2012, p. 3). The Impact of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) is the largest federal funding program in the history of the United States. No Child Left Behind is a, Ã¢â¬Å"reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), which originated in 1965 as part of the War on PovertyÃ¢â¬ (Braden and Schroeder, n.d., p. 1). While NCLB provides additional funding from the federal government it also imposes mandates that states must follow. The supplementary funding provided under the No Child Left Behind Act is not necessarily enough for states to meet the standards required by the act. The main focus of NCLB is Title I funding which the federal government allocates to states to help provide an education to economically disadvantaged students. No Child Left Behind includes eight other forms of Title funding such as school safety, teacher quality, assessments, and American Indian education (Braden and Schroeder, n.d., p. 1). Title I funds are the most important part of No Child Left Behind as the majority of the funds are earmarked for Title I purposes and Title I funding holds states accountable for student achievement as evidenced on state assessments. The move towards holding states accountable for student achievement began prior to the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Most states included accountability in their education reform acts during the 1990s (Ladd, 2001). By the year 2001, the same year as NCLB, more than forty states published a school report card, more than half had some type of school achievement rating, and numerous states offered assistance or sanctions to schools with low studentÃ performance (Meyer, Orlofsky, Skinner, & Spicer, 2002). In January of 2002, No Child Left Behind was signed into law and for the first time in history the federal government was involved in, Ã¢â¬Å"setting broad parameters, implementation timelines, and sanctions for state accountability systemsÃ¢â¬ (Du ncombe, Lukemeyer, &Yinger, 2006, p. 1). States began to implement NCLB in 2002 during a time of financial difficulties. This created concerns based on the cost involved in funding a program of its magnitude as well as questions regarding the extent to which the NCLB program was funded. Most estimates concerning the cost of implementing the program were far from accurate. This prompted states, such as Connecticut and Utah, to pass legislation which allowed them to either ignore the parts of NCLB that required funding from the state or sue the federal government for a lack of funding (Duncombe et al., 2006). While NCLB involves many federal education programs, the actÃ¢â¬â¢s requirements in regards to school improvement, accountability, and testing are a priority. No Child Left Behind required states to test students in grades three through eight yearly in math and reading. Students in grades ten through twelve must be tested once. In addition students must be tested in science once in grades three through five, six through eight, and tenth-twelfth. In addition, states, school districts and individual schools are to Ã¢â¬Å"publicly report test results in the aggregate and for specific student subgroups, including low-income students, students with disabilities, Eng lish language learners, and major racial and ethnic groupsÃ¢â¬ (New America Foundation, 2014). Another requirement of NCLB is that all teachers must be highly qualified. Teachers must pass a licensure exam and be certified by the state they teach in. Teachers who teach a specific subject area must demonstrate their subject knowledge by passing the subject knowledge portion of the licensure exam. NCLB specifies that states develop a plan Ã¢â¬Å"to ensure that low-income and minority students are not taught by teachers who are not highly qualified at higher rates than are non-minority and low-income studentsÃ¢â¬ (New America Foundation, 2014). In addition, NCLB give parents and guardians the right to know the qualification of their childÃ¢â¬â¢s teacher and if their child is receiving instruction from a paraprofessional and if so the qualifications of that individual. NCLB requires that school districtÃ¢â¬â¢s notify parents in writing if their child will receive instruction from a teacher who is not highlyÃ qualified for longer than four weeks (New America Foundation, 20 14). No Child Left Behind stated that all school districts in the United States were to guarantee that each child enrolled in their district would score proficient in the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s reading and math assessments by 2014. Each state was given the freedom to define what grade level proficiency meant in regards to their state standards. NCLB required that schools make Ã¢â¬Å"adequate yearly progressÃ¢â¬ (AYP) towards achieving their goal. Proficiency rates increased yearly up to 2014 and individual states were allowed to choose their rate of increase. In order for a state to make AYP they must meet their goal for student achievement in reading and math every year (New America Foundation, 2014). Forty-three states, Washington D.C., Puerto Rico, a group of California school districts as well as the Bureau of Indian Education applied for waivers exempting them from being required to meet their targets and other requirements of NCLB from the Department of Education. In September of 2011, President Obama and Arne Duncan, Secretary of Education, announced that the Obama administration, Ã¢â¬Å"would allow states to request flexibility in meeting some of the requirements under NCLB in the absence of the lawÃ¢â¬â¢s reauthorizationÃ¢â¬ (New America Foundation, 2014). For a state to qualify to receive flexibility throu gh a waiver, the state needs to show they have adopted or will implement reforms to their, Ã¢â¬Å"academic standards, student assessments, and accountability systems for schools and educatorsÃ¢â¬ (New America Foundation, 2014). According to No Child Left Behind schools that do not make AYP for two consecutive years will be identified for school improvement, and will have to create a school improvement plan (SIP), and apply a minimum of ten percent of their federal Title I funds to professional development. Schools that do not make AYP for a third year will be under corrective action, and will be required to apply interventions to improve school performance, Ã¢â¬Å" from a list specified in the legislationÃ¢â¬ (New America Foundation, 2014). If a school fails to make AYP for a fourth year they will be, Ã¢â¬Å"identified for restructuring which requires more significant interventionsÃ¢â¬ (New America Foundation, 2014). If a school fails to make AYP for a fifth year, Ã¢â¬Å"they must implement a restructuring plan that includes reconstituting school staff and/or leadership, changing the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s governance arrangement, converting the school to a charter, turning it over to a private management company, or some other major changeÃ¢â¬ Ã (New America Foundation, 2014). Specific school districts that have a high percentage of schools that fail to make average yearly progress for multiple years could be, Ã¢â¬Å"identified for school improvement, corrective action, and restructuringÃ¢â¬ (New America Foundation, 2014). The Future of Church-State Relations As religion continues to hold influence on the American culture the U.S. judicial system remains the authority for interpreting the constitutionality of matters of religion. The separation of church and state comes as a result of America not having an established religion for all of the residents to follow; the people were given freedom of religion. According to Thomas Jefferson, God is acknowledged as the creator of mankind and government is not a divine organization therefore it is the responsibility of the citizens to oversee the institution of government. In 1791 the government discontinued support or promotion of any religion. The decisions made so long ago continue to greatly impact organizations such as schools today. In the classroom teachers are held accountable to the state that they will remain neutral on the subject of religion while on school grounds (The Boisi Center, n.d.). Cases such as Committee for Public Education and Religious Liberty v Nyquist (1973) and Mueller v Allen (1983) have kept the courts busy on the subject of funding religion in the educational system (Pew Research Center, 2008). The Free Exercise Clause permits students to practice their faith privately on campus as long as it does not cause disruptions to the academic day and students are not being persuaded to follow his/her beliefs. School vouchers and tax credits that were distributed from 1983-2002 were considered constitutional under the Establishment Clause as they approved a parentÃ¢â¬â¢s choice to have their child attend a religious school. The courts accepted these practices because they did not show intent to persuade on the side of religion (The Boisi Center, n.d.). During this time all over the country courts were hearing cases to oppose the allowance of vouchers to religious organizations as they felt it went against the separation of church-state. In some states courts ruled that vouchers could only be used for parents that wanted to move their child to a higher performing public school so that private religious schools did not receive state education funds. Now and in the future the United StatesÃ will continue to permit religious liberty to the people, the government will not be accountable nor will it dictate ones religious practices (The Boisi Center, n.d.). With the increased cases that continue to build against religion in schools and educational funding to religious private schools it is predicted that the future of church-state relations in educational funding will give more authority to the state education departments on the placement of funds. The state will seek more control of religious private schools, as the voucher program seems to be here to stay. The state is going to want more control of curriculum if they will be providing financial support (Pardini, 1999). Tax credit programs are also popular and seem to offer a compromise of church-state relations. Tax credits provide financial support to families that choose to place their child in private schools. As time progresses state government will advocate for an increase in charter schools, this will allow for state funds in the form of vouchers and tax credits to support schools that do not have a religious focus (Pardini, 1999). This battle will continue until a decision is m ade by the U.S. Supreme Court on the constitutionality of the Blaine Amendments. These amendments were established in 1875 to disallow states to financially support private schools that teach religion. At this time there are approximately thirty states that incorporate Blaine language in their constitution, which disrupts the success of vouchers being used by parents that wish to relocate their child to a higher performing and/or religious private school (DeForrest, 2003). Future Trends in Court Decisions and Power over Educational Financing The courts have had a hand in education dating back to the creation of the United States Constitution. Although there was no specific mention in the Constitution as to who was responsible, who carried the power in terms of financing education, education was valued in the early days, and many early settlers used the Bible to teach the young to read. As time went on people challenged the use of teaching the Bible in Public Schools. People used the First Amendment of the United States Constitution to argue about the intermingling of church and state and the use of direct government support for parochial, and private schools (Brimley, Verstegen, & Garfield, 2012). The courts found themselves hearing cases of people challenging the use of government funds in schools other than public schools and, in the case of Pierce v. Society of SistersÃ (268 U.S. 510-1925), the courts ruled for using public funds for church-relate d schools. Because of this ruling financing public schools has seen some great changes, and will continue to see changes. This court ruling could potentially change the makeup and the system of education in the United States. States will implement more stringent guidelines as to what they expect from schools in regards to performance standards since they are the ones providing the funds. These guidelines are the result of schools continuing to fail to meet state requirements, running low on funds due decreased income from property taxes, or the need for states take over more schools or shut them down, To date there has not been a proven method that will solve the problems of educational financing. Politics have a large influence in financing education. This was evident during the Bush administration, when money went into funding Laura BushÃ¢â¬â¢s library after other school programs were cut. For nearly forty years the constitutionality of the way schools are financed has been scrutinized. There have been one hundred thirty-nine lawsuits in forty-five states promoting finance reform after the ruling of Serrano v. Priest (Education Next, 2010). The states are required by their individual state constitutions to provide an adequate education to all students. Currently there is no solution to the challenges of financing public schools so that all individuals feel like they are being treated equally. The debates and challenges have been going on for decades and will continue for years to come. Responsibility is placed on the states to ensure that their State Constitution requirements are being met and to provide funding for local schools. Conclusion As previously stated education as it is known today continues to change at a rapid rate and will continue to change forever as the world that we all reside in is ever changing. Technology has had a major influence on education, and the world in general. Ã¢â¬Å"If students are not being taught to use technology, and not being taught adequate math, science, and communication skills, the United States will continue to lose its superiority to other countriesÃ¢â¬ (A Nation at Risk, 1983). In order for the United States to keep up with the competitive commerce, todayÃ¢â¬â¢s students need to be pushed a little more to achieve more and not just be satisfied with mediocrity. There was a time when funding private and/or parochialÃ schools was not even an issue, as it was clearly understood that government monies was allocated for public schools. As time went on, needs changed, be it individual needs such as students with disabilities, or families of low income. With these needs came reasons to challenge the norm. Attorneys were contracted, and the status quo was challenged. Nobody could have predicted the changes that would happen nor is it possible to predict the future from today. It is impossible to guess the future of financing education because no one knows what the needs will be in fifteen to twenty-five years from now. It is crucial that past rulings be thoroughly examined to assist with preparing for future financial direction, although that is not the magic solution. References A Nation At Risk: The Imperative For Educational Reform (1983). American Federation of Teachers (2011). School vouchers: The research track record. Retrieved September 29, 2014 from: http://www.aft.org/pdfs/teachers/vouchertrackrecord0211.pdfBarnes, M. (2010, September 13). The Lemon Test and the Establishment Clause: A Proposal For Modification. Retrieved September 29, 2014. Barry, C., and Wysong, C. 2010. School-Finance Reform in Red and Blue. Where theMoney Goes Depends on WhoÃ¢â¬â¢s Running the State. Retrieved Summer 2010 / Vol. 10, N0. 3 from: educationnext.org/school-finance-reform-in-red-and-blue/ Braden, J., & Schroeder, J. (n.d.). High-Stakes Testing and No Child Left Behind: Information and strategies for Educators. Retrieved September 29, 2014, from http://www.nasponline.org/communications/spawareness/highstakes.pdfBrimley, Vera R., Verstegen, Deborah A., & Garfield, Rulon R. (2012). Financing education in a climate of change (11th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon DeForrest, M. (2003). An Overview and Evaluation of State Blaine Amendments: Origins, Scope, and First Amendment Concerns. Harvard Journal Of Law & Public Policy, 26(2), 551.Duncombe, W., Lukemeyer, A., & Yinger, J. (2006, September). The No Child Left Behind Act: Have Federal Funds Been Left Behind? Retrieved September 29, 2014, from http://cpr.maxwell.syr.edu/efap/Publications/costing_out.pdfFusarelli, Bonnie and Young, Tamara (2011). Preserving the Ã¢â¬Å"publicÃ¢â¬ in public education for the sake of democracy. Journal of Thought. 46(1) p. 85-96 Ladd, H. 2001. Ã¢â¬Å"School-Based Educational Accountability Systems: The Promise and Pitfalls.Ã¢â¬ National Tax Journal 54 (2): 385-400. Leachman, Michael and Mai, Chris (2014). Most states funding school less than before the recession. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. May 2014. Meyer, L., G. Orlofsky, R. Skinner, and S. Spicer. 2002. Ã¢â¬Å"The State of the States.Ã¢â¬ Quality Counts 2001. January 10.. National Conference of School Legislatures (2014). School Vouchers. Retrieved September 28, 2014 from: http://www.ncsl.org/research/education/school-choice-vouchers.aspxNew America Foundation. Background & Analysis. (2014). Retrieved September 28, 2014, from http://febp.newamerica.net/background-analysis/no-child-left-behind-overviewPardini, P. 1999. Church/state complexities. Retrieved from www.rethinkingschools.orgSave our Schools NJ (2014) School Voucher Basics. Retrieved September 27, 2014 from: http://www.saveourschoolsnj.org/vouchers/The Basics of Separation. (2014). Retrieved September 29, 2014, from http://candst.tripod.com/tnppage/tnpidx.htmThe Boisi Center. Date Unknown. Separation of church and sta te. Religion and American Public Life. Retrieved from www.bc.eduThe Lemon Test. (2009, May 14). Retrieved September 28, 2014.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Why I find the Lemon Law interesting and what the Lemon Law Is about - Research Paper Example This was the first ever consumer protection law filed in the U.S. (Paterson The History of the Lemon Law). The creation of the Federal Trade Commission in 1914 provided consumers with further protection from deceitful business practises and brought in regulations to prevent collusion in the marketplace. In the 1930s, a flurry of government activity at all levels during President Franklin Roosevelts New Deal era saw the creation of a number of regulatory bodies to protect consumers. The Lemon Law also saw its first incarnation in 1906 under the guise of the Uniform Sales Act. Cowan (The History of Lemon Laws) explains that before 1952s Uniform Commercial Code, commerce laws were not really united under one law. In fact, it was not until 1970 when the Song- Beverly Consumer Warranty Act was created. This was the basis for our modern lemon laws. Under this particular act consumers would be protected against defective products. The Federal version of the Lemon Law which is known as the Magnuson-Moss Act was finally passed in 1975 and this act became the basis of our modern Lemon Laws. (Cowan The History of Lemon Laws). Under the Magnuson-Moss Act the buyer is protected when purchasing a vehicle because: This lemon law states that any advertised guarantee should explicitly state relevant information about a warranty. This law ensures that any warranty for goods above $15 should be clearly expressed on the goods and should be clear and easy to understand. The Magnuson-Moss Warranty act enables a consumer to bring suit to any manufacturer, supplier, warrantor, or service contractor for any defective piece of good or services. (StateLawyers.com) The term Lemon Law was originally coined by the government in an effort to describe the laws that the government had set into place in order to protect automobile (thats a car to you and me) buyers from defects. The basic definition of the law basically states that: Lemon Law refers to the
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Should Abusive Parents Be Punished or Treated - Research Paper Example Parenting has usually been treated as a private issue in the United States, and the government has been hesitant to meddle with the rights of parents to care for or raise their children in their own way. Even though a number of laws have been implemented since the 1960s forbidding extreme parental cruelty against children, there is still, in reality, tremendous lenience for violence against children (Westman, 2007). These aggressive actions may not be viewed as abusive by some but are regarded as abuse by many professionals. Many states do not forbid parents from hitting their children. Yet, most states have laws that identify child abuse. The federal government has ratified the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) which establishes rules that the states should integrate into their child abuse laws (Wallace & Roberson, 2010). CAPTA mandates the designation of child abuse to add (Hirschy, Thompson, & Wilkinson, 2010, 2): Ã¢â¬Å"Any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker, which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse, or exploitation, or an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harmÃ¢â¬ . In a research on cases of absence of supervision, many involved parents who entrusted their children to an incompetent guardian or caregiver or parents who totally abandoned their children. In 40% of the cases examined, dependable parents admitted: Ã¢â¬Å"they believed there was nothing wrong with what had happenedÃ¢â¬ (Collins, 2006, 808). Moreover, the caseworkers who were instructed to evaluate the case documents thoroughly reported Ã¢â¬Å"that in more than half the casesÃ¢â¬ ¦ the supervision problem was due to a lack of knowledge or poor judgment about the abilities or needs of children of a given ageÃ¢â¬ .Ã Ã
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Introduction to managerial accounting - Essay Example It creates precise reports that are focused on future, present and past, the management uses these reports in making educated decisions concerning the organization. Some of the reports produced are; Department reports, Sales forecasting, planning reports and Production reports. Financial accounting provides information to government agencies, suppliers, banks and shareholders who use it in making long term decisions for the organization, and they follow Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). Reports created include; income statement, balance sheets, retained earnings summary and cash flow reports. Managerial accounting lays emphasis on decisions that affect the future, therefore planning is an important element of the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s job since managerial accounting is future based. Financial accounting basically provides past financial transaction summaries which may be used in planning to some extent, since the future is not always a reflection of past happenings. Many changes are taking place in economic and technological conditions therefore, managerÃ¢â¬â¢s planning must be based on what will happen rather than what really happened (Accounting for Management, 2012). Accounting information is used internally by employees and various managers who include; marketing managers and purchasing managers. Accurate accounting is important to individuals who make crucial business and financial decisions within the organization that affect the organization directly. Companies aiming at selling services and goods at prices that provide adequate returns to the owners should keep an adequate level of liquidity and profitability to continue operations. Accounting information is critical to organizations in conducting their daily activities such as; financing the company, investing in resources, managing employees, producing goods and marketing
Ethical Issues within Information Technology - Essay Example Similarly social networking media is used to connect with friend and relatives and share the events of life (Reynolds, 2014). But if someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s intention is wrong then he may use the shared data or pictures which is not right at all. Security is another important issue. Hackers can easily hack into any computer by using internet protocol and collect data to fulfill some selfish reasons. In case of online banking hackers can easily get information about the transfer of funds and money can be transferred to their desired account by their interruption. So security should be at high level while using information technology (Azari, 2003). Ownership is such kind of ethical issue which indicates the right of an original creator on his work. Information technology has made it easy to get access about any information at any given point of time. There are so many music and book sharing networks through which people can download those data and can use for their own purpose. In such cases the original creators of those works lose the credibility of their work. Extensive use of networks and internet, easy access to technology and advanced wireless telecommunication system gradually losing the control on the whole process and hacker are getting benefits from their mal practices (Brennan and Johnson, 2004). Sharing own data also hamper the accuracy level of the information. People use these data as an authentic source but sometimes they do not get the proper data for using in their work. According to the importance of these ethical issues, these can be ranked as the following order: Privacy, Security, Control, Ownership and Accuracy. Privacy, security and control are three most important parameters for reducing the practice of hacking (George, 2008). Computer crime, viruses, hacking, piracy, plagiarism these are very serious impact on the field of information technology. Current
Friday, July 26, 2019
The needs of young people who offend and the risks they pose are not the same thing. Discuss - Essay Example According to Arthur (2005) the courts have held the parents of offending youths responsible on some level since the 19th century. Prior to 1990 such parental responsibility was only generally found in financial terms with the parents being forced to pay compensation for the harm caused by their children1. The same financial responsibility has been retained since the reforms in the criminal justice system2 but the government has added extra burdens on the parents in non-financial terms. Gelsthorpe (1999) highlights the proposed changes that the Government were planning on implementing in 1991 such that the parents of offending children could be charged with failing Ã¢â¬Ëto prevent their children from committing offencesÃ¢â¬â¢. These plans failed to come to fruition but the introduction of the Criminal Justice Act 1991 s58 did give the courts the power to issue a bind-over to the parents of offending youths. Parents were entitled to refuse to accept the bind-over but could then be faced with a fine of Ã £1000. Prior to the 1991 Act the non-financial responsibility of parents was limited to a requirement for them to attend court with the children3. Most of the Criminal Justice Act 1991 was repealed by the Powers of the Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000 although the provision to bind-over parents was retained under s150. Under this section a bind-over can remain in place for a maximum of 3 years or until the child attains the age of 18, which ever is the sooner. This section can also make it so that the parent is bound over to ensure that the child complies with any community sentence that has been imposed on them4. Prior to the 2000 Act parenting orders were brought into being through the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 aimed at making parents responsible for the actions of their children. These orders range from making the children attend school to curfews and enforcing their children from association with certain persons.
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Compare and contrast discontinuous change - Research Paper Example Factors causing the discontinuous change in business can be grounded in different fields that may include but are not limited to politics, religion, technological advancement, and literacy rate. Discontinuous change affects family-businesses more as compared to other types of businesses primarily because the former are less formal in terms of system and organization, and accordingly less likely to increase the resources to help the business sustain as compared to the latter (Kumar, 2012). End of the cinemas and entertainment industry in a region because of a strong religious movement, closure of projects started by the previous government by the new government after it takes the charge, drastic reduction in the scope of manual sewing and embroidery of clothing because of the use of machines for the same purposes, rapid decline in the market value of palmists and magicians with the rise of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s belief in science and technology as a result of more education and improved literacy rate, and decline in the readership of books with the availability of online reading sources on the
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
TV media and violence - Term Paper Example However, it is not enough to leave the subject vague and as such, there is need to weigh media positivity against its negativity. Focusing on mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s negative effects such as violence is particularly important in order to eliminate undesired moral values in a bid to build a better society. Televised media can arguably be considered the most influential form of media due to its ability to air in both audio and video forms simultaneously. Therefore, it is important noting that televised media does not only involve television programs and movies but also any other telecommunication medium that involves movements of images and sound such as video games among others. A large number of televised media platforms that people interact with in the modern have a form of violence. Violence refers to any form of aggression or activity that results to physical injury. In a bid to relate media to violence it is necessary to focus more on violence from the scientific perspective that seeks to lie more on determining causes of violence rather than the violent actions (Escobar-Chaves and Anderson, 2008, para. 2). This implies that media can arguably be considered as a source of violence in the society. Cases of violence especially among the young people have been on the rise since the introduction of televised media. Taking a keen interest in the development of people, televised media, which is part of the immediate surroundings of a developing person, can arguably be considered one of the factors that shape a personÃ¢â¬â¢s identity. This is to say that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior is dependent on the ongoing activities relating to that particular environment. When people are born they do not poses personal identities. However, in the course of growth and as interactions increase, personal traits are developed based on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s surroundings. A combination of self-discovery and the imminent environment leads to formation of self-identity (Aronson, Wilson, & Akert, 2010, p.118).
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Risk and quality management - Essay Example Tutor Signature: Date: Task 1 Introduction The following report includes the description of the term quality management and the term risk management. The report also includes the description of importance of these concepts at different stages of a project. The report also includes the description of BS ISO 10006-2003 and its adequacy with respect to the different stages of a project. The report also includes the suggestion as how this standard can be improved. Finally a conclusion has been drawn on the basis of the overall analysis. Quality management Quality management can be said to be the process of management of the quality of the project under consideration. Quality management has different definitions with respect to different businesses and processes. A project can be said to be a temporary endeavour having a defined beginning and end, which is undertaken with predefined objectives and goals, so it is vital for the effective attainment of objectives to manage the quality of th e project. The main aim behind quality management is to attain all the project objectives and goals by effectively honouring the preconceived constraints of the project and managing the quality of the objectives or results under consideration (Kerzner, 2010). ... Risk management Risk management can be said to be a simple process of identifying, analyzing, and responding to the factors associated with risks during the life of the project under consideration. Risk management, in simpler terms, can be said to be the controlling of the risk factors and the possibilities of the risky events and handling them in a proactive manner rather than in a reactive manner. Risk management includes two steps: the assessment of risks and the control of risks. The risk assessment is the process performed at each level of the project; the control of the processes is performed at stages when the implementation is done and the performance is derived from the standards set. Risk management is the vital step which needs to be performed at each stage of the project, so that the project can be accomplished with the available resources and so that the prescribed objectives can be achieved (Maylor, 2003). Prince 2 (Projects in Controlled Environment) This is a process- based method, which is highly effective in the management of projects. This is a de facto standard, which is extensively utilized by the government of UK and is also used in the private sectors for the management of the projects. The PRINCE2 provides greater control of resources, and this also helps manage the project risks and business risks in a more effective manner. PRINCE2 aids in several areas of project management: the justification of the business or project purpose; defining of the organization structure which aids the project management team; planning-based approach; emphasis on the project by dividing it into manageable and controllable stages and by outlining its specified structure. This method is highly
Monday, July 22, 2019
A Report on Hans Binker Essay In Hans Brinker, or the Silver Skates, Mary Mapes Dodge tells the story of Hans Brinker, a fifteen year old boy, and Gretel, his sister. Hans finds himself responsible for his family after his fathers accident. Theres a pretty pair just coming upon the ice! The little ragpickers! Their skates must have been a present from the king direct. this is said of Hans and Gretel by Carl, a rich boy who sees the two go unto the ice with their wooden skates. Here we see how Hans and his family fares compared to the rest of the townspeople: they are one of the poorest families. Their father, Raff Brinker, became invalid after an accident. One day Hans and Gretel learn of a race in which silver skates are to be the prize. Meanwhile, Hans by chance sees Dr. Boekman, a famous old doctor, and convinces the doctor to treat his father. Hans and Gretel eventually obtain steel skates needed to join in the contest, and Gretel wins the silver skates. The doctor manages to treat Raff successfully, and Raff remembers where he hid some Ã¢â¬Å"treasureÃ¢â¬ , and all goes well in the end. One constant problem is the conflict between Han personal wants and his sense of responsibility and morality. For example, when he finds the purse that contained some money, he must decide whether to keep it or return it; when Hans wants to spend the money on steel skates, while knowing that his family could really use the money; and the dilemma on how he should react to those who humiliate him because of his poverty. The book contains a lot of textbook descriptions, which I think does not work in the its favor, as it is unlikely that a reader will pick a book with the intention of simultaneously reading a good story and Ã¢â¬Å"textbookÃ¢â¬ material on a countrys history and geography. With all the fiction encountered by modern people todayÃ¢â¬âon television, books, moviesÃ¢â¬âthe story of Hans Brinker comes off as somewhat hackneyed, but of course this was probably not the case in the 1860s, when the author wrote the book. I would not say that I actual learned anything from the book. At best, it reminds the reader of the continued existence of the extremely poor even in these modern times. And of course the the book reminds us of the importance of the usual Ã¢â¬Å"goodness of the heartÃ¢â¬ of of Ã¢â¬Å"advantagesÃ¢â¬ in life that are only superficial and ultimately meaningless.
Run Lola Run Relentless Passage of Time Essay In the film, Ã¢â¬ËRun Lola RunÃ¢â¬â¢ directed by Tom Tyker, various verbal and visual techniques are used to give and display to the audience several strong ideas. Verbal techniques such as music, and visual techniques such as snapshots, cinematography and others, emphasized and helped to display the important themes and ideas to the audience in Ã¢â¬ËRun Lola RunÃ¢â¬â¢. These ideas and themes included Ã¢â¬ËThe Relentless Passage of TimeÃ¢â¬â¢, and Ã¢â¬ËThe Role of Fate and ChanceÃ¢â¬â¢. These all centre around the main character Lola, as she has 20 minutes to raise $100,000 marks, save her boyfriend Manni from certain death and punishment, and for a supernatural reason has three chances to do so after she fails the first 2 times. Ã¢â¬ËRun Lola RunÃ¢â¬â¢ is set in the 20th century in the city of Berlin, and is broken up into 3 separate parts of her chances to run and save Manni her boyfriend. The visual editing technique of snapshots is significant and unique to any other film, and used interestingly in Ã¢â¬ËRun Lola RunÃ¢â¬â¢. The snapshot technique was used on occasions in which Lola encountered different strangers on her run to save Manni. The camera zoomed close up to these people faces before switching to snapshots which showed the major aspects in each personÃ¢â¬â¢s future. These snapshots were in a slightly dull colour scheme and had the sound of the old flash camera going off at the arrival of each image. The characters that Lola encountered that were affected by the snapshot technique were Doris the lady with the pram, and Mike the boy on the bike, and for each of the 3 runs the snapshots of their futures were different. This strongly emphasized the displayed theme of Ã¢â¬ËThe Role of Fate and ChanceÃ¢â¬â¢ to the audience. For example, DorisÃ¢â¬â¢s (the lady with the pram) snapshots show for the 1st run that she becomes poor, has her baby taken away, and in the end steals someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s baby, for the 2nd run she wins lotto and becomes a millionaire, and for the last run she becomes a Catholic.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Roles and responsibilities of a teacher Review your own roles and responsibilities as a Teacher, in terms of the Teaching/Training Cycle, identifying boundaries that should be set. INTRODUCTION In every profession, there are roles and responsibilities and boundaries that are set in order to divide the line that indicates the farthest limit. Roles and Responsibilities are important because they would facilitate order in any given organisation and allow personal and organisational objectives to be met, as those with Roles will be accountable to their functions. Actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group are referred to as Roles while the obligations to carry forward an assigned task to a successful conclusion are referred to as Responsibilities. All learning institutions are subject to legislation. It is of relevance that in this assignment I link these roles and responsibilities to current legislative requirements such as Disability Discrimination Act, (DDA), Special Education Needs (SEN), and Equal Opportunities. Under the Professional Code of Practice, I have responsibilities as a teacher to undertake 30 hours of Continued Professional Development per year and I must also update my subject knowledge. I must therefore, have clarity on my roles and responsibilities in order to prevent omission of duty. In this assignment I will examine the Roles and Responsibilities of a Teacher in relation to the Teaching/Training Cycle. This will lead to focussing on professional activities within the learning cycle. I will also recognise the professional boundaries that govern a teachers behaviour in order to comply with the Professional code of conduct. It is therefore, of significance that I discuss where the teachers different roles stop. After analysing this topic, I will come up with a conclusion. Holtrop (1997) suggests that Obviously teachers wear many hats: friend, counsellor, judge, mentor, hundreds of roles and different roles for different classes, students and extracurricular duties. In relation to the Training cycle, I have a role of Assessor. A majority of learners will have different individual learning needs and for me to accommodate their needs, I need to have assessment skills that will promote equality, diversity and inclusion. I will link this to Domain A of the LLUK Standards which states one of the professional practices as Apply principles to evaluate and develop own practice in promoting equality and inclusive learning and engaging with diversity. I can achieve this by carrying out thorough initial assessments that will help me to identify different learner needs such as poor writing skills, poor reading skills, disabilities etc. This would be in line with Domain C Ways to identify individual learning needs and potential barriers to learning in own specialist area. This will make it easier for both the learner and me to access learning and deliver learning respectively, because based on the assessment needs that I will identify, I must have knowledge understanding of how I will apply the different assessment methods like formative and summative assessments to meet these needs. This may increase the level of motivation to both the learner and teacher. I will link this to Domain E which is about assessment for learning Theories and principles of assessment and the application of different forms of assessment, including initial, formative and summative assessment in teaching and learning. In my role as a teacher I am to conduct initial assessments which will help me to identify learners needs, knowledge and skills and also help to identify referral points against levels within the National Standards. When I identify needs that need to be referred, I will have to give the learner information, advice and guidance to where they are being referred. This will be linked to Domain F which is about access and progression- sources of information, advice, guidance and support to which learners might be referred. This also promotes the Wayt (2008) explains that Assessing varying learning styles within a group and considering learners motivation and previous experiences helps identify various teaching methods that could be useful throughout the programme. Sessions incorporating visual, auditory and kinaesthetic learning styles ensures students have equal rights to learning and provide the opportunity to re-evaluate what is already known while exploring aims and objectives from a different perspective. The initial assessment will provide me with some important detail to inform the plan, which will be revised on an on-going basis to monitor the learners progress and identify any subsequent support needs. Both learner and teacher will be aware of what the learner knows and is able to do and what he/she needs to learn. It is also important for me and the learner to know how the learner likes to learn; as this helps me to identify barriers to learning such as difficulties in reading, writing, numeric, language skills and any other disabilities and will make reasonable adjustments in order to use the appropriate assessment methods that will meet the individual learners needs and promote equality and diversity. At this stage, should any learner require support which is beyond my competence, I will refer and ensure that I give the learner the right information on their referral, so as to meet the professional standards in Domain F of the LLUK Sources of information, advice, guidance and s upport to which learners might be referred. This is in line with the Equal Opportunities Act (2004) which states that all learners must have equal access to learning regardless of their learning barriers, disabilities, sex, religion, and race. Under the Disability Discrimination Act 1995(as amended by the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001) disabled learners must not be treated less favourably and teachers must make reasonable adjustments to ensure that disabled learners are not at a substantial disadvantage compared to their peers. . Following the initial assessment, I should do a diagnostic assessment in order to identify specific individual needs and support required and this will lead to the creation of a detailed personal profile, providing the basis for an Individual Learning Plan. As an Assessor, I have limits to this role. By doing a thorough assessment, I may identify needs that are beyond my competence and may need to refer the learner appropriately. For example, if I identify that a Learner has financial needs, I may need to refer the said learner to the appropriate department. This in itself is helping meet the learners need and adhering to the professional boundaries. It would be very unprofessional for a teacher to give money to a learner to fund his/her education or get money from a learner. This is to conform to the LLUK standard in Domain A which states that Conform to statutory requirements and apply codes of practice and also Domain F which says Boundaries of own role in supporting learners. And one of the professional code of practice introduced by the Institute for Learning (IFL) states that a teacher must protect the interest of the learners and the wider public and any member of the Institute for Learning who breaches the code will be subject t o disciplinary investigation as described by the disciplinary procedure. Let me look at another role of a teacher. As a teacher, I am a Planner, in that I plan appropriate, effective, coherent and inclusive learning programmes that promote equality and engage with diversity. This means I should plan for the use of different teaching methods and activities which are in line with the curriculum requirements and meet the needs of the learners. These may be group discussions, questioning etc. This is in line with the LLUK Standard Domains B and D BK2.1 Principles of learning and ways to provide learning activities to meet curriculum requirements and the needs of all learners. DK 1.1 How to plan appropriate, effective, coherent and inclusive learning programmes that promote equality and engage with diversity. Planning is a very important role for me because it will direct or guide me in the delivery session. My planning will depend on the identified individual needs, which will prompt me to use the appropriate teaching methods. This is because I am required to ensure that the identified needs of my learners are properly taken care of in my planning process. Without planning, I might not be able to meet the learners needs and may not deliver in line with the curriculum. This may result in de-motivation and dissatisfaction to both the learner and I, as learners will feel they have not been catered for and I will feel I have not played my role as a planner. In view of the on going assessments, I am responsible for preparing the assessments in such a way that they meet the needs of individual learners and promote equality, diversity and inclusion. In this case, it is important for me to use different assessment methods such as formative and summative assessments. These could be direct observation, oral questioning, professional discussion, witness testimony of case studies. When this is done, I will have met the LLUK Standard Domain E Theories and principles of assessment and the application of different forms of assessment, including initial, formative and summative in teaching and learning. It is part of my responsibility to ensure that learners are involved in planning for assessments. Learners should not be subjected to a surprise assessment. I should always involve them at the planning stage and be able to give them opportunities to make their own suggestions and choices without putting them in situations where they feel overwhelmed . This will give them a sense of ownership. This is in line with LLUK Standard Domain E Ensure that learners understand, are involved and share in responsibility for assessment of their learning. The planning session should be able to meet the individual learner needs, by considering different resources that will promote fair and effective assessment. For example, a teacher who is going to assessor a learner at a place of work must have planned in advance with the learner, who might have suggested that it was better to do the assessment in the morning because that is when a lot of activities take place. If this happens, it is most likely that the learner will feel at ease and have a sense of fulfilment because he/she has been involved in the planning process and his/her need met. This is linked to Domain E Apply appropriate methods of assessment fairly and effectively. A teacher is also an Information Provider (Lecturer). In reference to the Teaching/Learning cycle, this role requires me to deliver/implement teaching as planned and designed, inclusively to promote equality and diversity. Gay (2000) states that, It is very important for teachers to appreciate the impact culture has on learning. Furthermore, they must make their teaching well suited to the social cultural contexts and frames of reference of ethnically diverse students.Ã Ã I must therefore, take the differentiation approach, to be able to offer a range of approaches and resources to meet the needs of an individual or a group of learners. It is my responsibility to develop and produce teaching and learning materials appropriate for a range of contexts, purposes and target audiences. Different learners have different levels of understanding and knowledge, and if I am to cater for their needs, I will have to use different teaching tools, such as DVDs, handouts and practical demonstrations(which must be referenced to the curriculum) When applied these teaching tools will promote equality, diversity and inclusion and will have the potential for language, literacy, numeracy and information and communicat ion technology for learners and will make it easier for those who understand visual, auditory and kinaesthetic learning. For example, a learner who understands well when they see might need to watch the video to get understanding. This can be linked to Domain B of the LLUK Standards Ways to ensure that resources used are inclusive, promote equality and support. This can also be linked to Bloom (1997)s taxonomy where he separates out learning into three Domains Cognitive domain concerns our thinking and memory and our capacity for understanding. The psychomotor domain deals with our abilities, the skills that we have, what we can physically do. Affective domain relates to our understanding, i.e. our approach, our attitude to what we do. I am also responsible for making the learning environment a safe place to comply with the Health and Safety at Work Act (1974.) This calls for risk assessments, which help to identify any hazards that would hinder learning. According to Maslows pyramid, everyone needs to feel protected against any life threatening cause. This is also in accordance with the LLUK Standard Domain B- which states that Ways to maintain a learning environment in which learners feel safe and supported. It is therefore important for me to maintain safety in the learning environment and to make learners be aware of their responsibilities in maintaining safety, as health and safety is everyones responsibility.Ã As a teacher, I have the role of a Mentor/ Counsellor in delivering the course. I should be able to apply appropriate teaching and learning strategies which take account of individual learner needs. When delivering the course, I must show understanding of the responsibilities and boundaries of my own role in providing support for individual learners for example, signposting and /or referring on specialist services. Learners should be given information on where they can find further information, advice, guidance or learning provision. I also need to ensure that learners understand the context of the course, for example the NVQ standards, its application and contribution to the care sector, the economy and the community. It is therefore, important for me to attend standardisation meetings in order to keep abreast with current standards in my specialist area, as required by the LLUK Standards Domain C Own specialist area including current developments and Domain C Ways in which own specialist relates to the wider social, economic and environmental context. Gravells (2007) asserts that, learners learn from each other as well as the tutor. To promote diversity in my delivery, I must ensure that there is involvement of all students in relevant activities, rather than excluding them for any direct or indirect reasons (inclusively), as mentioned in the Tomlinson report. Teachers must facilitate learning environments which will promote culture and ethnic diversity. Therefore, learners from different ethnic groups will be able to voice their cultural expression in order to increase content and learning processes. The assessment of learners competence is an important role of a teacher. I will assess what the learner has learnt and will be responsible for finding out what methods of teaching and learning would be most appropriate for the learner and to motivate the learner to continue and to do better. This can be achieved by using formative and summative assessments. In relation to my area of teaching NVQs in Health and Social Care, formative assessment is aimed to helping the learner become competent and meet specific performance criteria. This should be an ongoing process, where regular tutorial sessions take place, teacher following workplace observation and completing of written tasks. I am responsible for giving learners constructive feedback on their performance, which will motivate them, especially those that are unsure of their own abilities. This can be linked to Domain E The role of feedback and questioning in assessment for learning. I am also responsible for recording outcomes of formative assessment and keeping these records updated and stored safely for confidentiality to conform to the LLUK Standard Domain A Keep accurate records which contribute to organisational procedures. This will in turn give learners a clear guidance as to what aspects of performance they shall still need to work on. In view of the Data Protection Act (1998), I must keep all records within confidentiality agreements to comply with organisational policies and procedures and also to comply with the LLUK Standard Domain A The need for confidentiality, respect and trust in communicating with others about learners. Summative assessment will take place at the end of the learning, giving feedback on learning achievements, maybe a qualification, test or a completed Individual Learning Plan. In relation to NVQs, summative assessment will represent a formal summing up of the learners achievement on completion of a particular piece of work; this may be at a completion of each unit. I will be responsible for making a final judgement on the whole of a unit after making a series of formative assessments. This also must be recorded as evidence to represent the learners competence at the time of the summative assessment. A teacher has a role of an evaluator as well. It is my responsibility to make an assessment of, or to judge what I have delivered. Evaluation will help me to look back at how I delivered the learning and find out what could be done differently. I will need to evaluate my own practice on a regular basis, such as my opinions on the course and how it could be made better next time. Learners must be given the opportunity to evaluate the course whether they achieved something, were the teaching materials enough? Did the course meet individual learner needs? This will help to improve delivery in subsequent sessions. In my role as NVQ Tutor/Assessor, I may need to follow the established structure in place, that means I need to be observed actually assessing and giving feedback and then I will be given feedback on how I perform and how I could improve. Some of the ways of getting feedback on my assessment and teaching skills could be, asking an experienced colleague to observe me, get feedback- formal and informal from learners on different types of assessments I use and how these can be improved. This can also be done by writing reflections to explore and evaluate the different ways I assess, using information from colleagues and learners, as well as the actual experiences and results related to the assessments I use with learners. Reflective practice will enhance good practice and further improve what I do in my subject area. All this is in line with the LLUK Standard Domain E The role of feedback in effective evaluation and improvement of own assessment skills. Revising is about making changes based on the evaluation information and will enable continuous improvements to be made. I am responsible for making any changes to the assessment or teaching methods that were not effective to the learners in order to meet their needs. This can be linked to Domain E The role of feedback in effective evaluation and improvement of own assessment skills. A teacher is a researcher. I should take responsibility to engage in continuing professional development to inform my practice, as this is one of the Codes of Professional Practice. As a teacher, I need to do a lot of research by reading relevant books, using the internet, journals, attending training and other relevant sources to update my knowledge. I am responsible for attending Standardisation meetings to inform my practice and to work in line with the specified standards. I must take it upon myself to explore and keep my mind focused to get knowledge and understanding. Collaborating with others would help to improve my own and team performance. This is in relation to the LLUK Standards in Domain A Ways to reflect, evaluate and use research to develop own practice and to share good practice with others. There are boundarieswithin professional disciplines. Teachers are not supposed to borrow money from learners, neither are they allowed to lend money to learners. It would be unprofessional for a teacher to be found in such a situation. Teachers are also reminded not to go beyond their role by going to learners home for assessment or learner coming to teachers home for assessment. All assessments must take place at the centre and /or workplace. As a teacher, I must always follow organisational procedures in dealing with issues such as complaints and appeals and make references appropriately, especially where the issue is not within my competence. CONCLUSION Roles and responsibilities are important because they will promote accountability among teachers and will help meet personal, organisational goals and individual learner needs. It would be frustrating if teachers lacked clarity on their roles and responsibilities because they would be stuck with who is doing what and who answers to whom? When these roles and responsibilities are applied, they benefit both the learner and teacher, by delivering learning which is inclusive, and promotes equality and diversity. Boundaries will help teachers to work within their limits and adhere to the professional code of practice. . Wayt(2008) The responsibility of a teacher will be to continuallyÃ reassess development and change during the course and create a seamless transitionÃ to ensure smooth delivery. This just confirms the teaching/learning cycle. I am responsible for ensuring that the cycle is on going, by seeing to it that action plans are put in place, constructive feedback is given to the learner where necessary and the cycle does not break. This will increase the level of motivation, satisfaction and will help to achieve the goals for both the learner and me. The teacher will also be responsible for inducting the learners to the organisation and course so that learners understand what is expected of them and what the organisation can deliver. This will also help the learners to have a clear understanding of the organisational rules and regulations and also of the course contents. This is likely to result in learners having a good foundation for their course and be able to prepare adequately. REFERENCES Bloom (1997) Maslin-Prosthero -page 185 Gay (2000) Available at http:/www.intime.uni.edu/multiculture/curriculum/culture/roles.htm Accessed on 6th December, 2009 Gravell A (2007) FE champion January, 2007- Post compulsory education and training. Available at www.pcet.net/articles63.html (Date accessed 6th December, 2009) Holtrop (1997) Available at http:/www.huntington.edu/education/lessonplanningroles.html Accessed on 6th December, 2009 Wayt S.(2008). Holistic Health and well-being. Available at http/:www.balance-therapy.co.uk Accessed 6th December, 2009 LLUK STANDARD DOMAINS LINKS Domain A AP 3.1 Domain C CK3.2 Domain E EK 1.1 Domain FÃ -FK 1.1 Domain A AP 6.1 Domain F -FK 2.1 Domain B BK 2.1 Domain D DK 1.1 Domain E EK1.1 Domain E EP3.1 Domain E -EP2.1 Domain B BK5.2 Domain B BK1.1 Domain C CK1.1 Domain C -CK1.2 Domain E EK4.1 Domain E EK5.1 Domain E EK4.2 Domain A AK4.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Movie: One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the movie, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's nest, there was a character named McMurphy, played by Jack Nickolson, who was admitted into a mental institution for medical testing after having been convicted of statutory rape. It was obvious that he was only faking and he thought that he could get off from having to serve his sentence in a work camp. He pretty much saw everything and everyone as a joke but the only person who he didn't fool was nurse Ratchet. He thought that he would be able to leave in a couple of months, the time of his sentence in the work camp, until he found out that he wouldn't be allowed to leave. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã After a few days he began to see the patients as a group that needed more enjoyment in their lives and he wanted to try to find some way that they could get out and go to a bar and watch the world series. The nursing staff seemed uncaring to their lack of enjoyment to life and basically refused to allow the patients to even watch the game on the TV during their chores even after having took a vote where a mute patient nicknamed 'Chief' for the first time communicated that he wanted to watch the game. McMurphy had befriended Chief and later discovered that he was not deaf and dumb but was only faking his muteness and they planed to escape together. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã McMurphy later found out that many of these patients were here only because they put themselves here and didn't want to leave even though they had the option to. He tried his best to bring some life to these patients such as teaching them to play poker and gambling for cigarettes. He even went so far as to escape over a fence only to open the gate and to get the patients onto a nearby bus and drive them to the docks where he took them on a fishing trip. Also he arranged for his girlfriend and a prostitute to come to the institution at night with some alcohol and had a little party for them before he decided he was going to escape. The next morning one of the patients who was suicidal was found by the nurses in bed with the prostitute. Nurse Ratchet told him that he would tell his mother what he had done and the patient was found later dead on the floor from having had slashed his own throat. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã McMurphy never did leave and he was given a form of therapy called ECT,
Friday, July 19, 2019
Analysis of an Aztec Encounter Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Spaniard and Aztec civilizations were two completely different worlds whose fated encounter caused some surprising reactions from both parties. Neither of these nations knew exactly what to expect or how to react to each other’s behaviors. Differences in religion, customs and weaponry became the deciding factors of who would be the dominant aggressor in these encounters. Even though both parties were unsure of what to expect, the Spaniards had already set a goal for themselves before they set foot in Mexico. They wanted to conquer the other nation and exploit them for anything of value. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The climax of the Aztec Empire and the conquistadors occurred when Motecuhzoma and Cortes met face to face for the first time. The Spaniards as well as the Aztecs had no clue what to expect. Motecuhzoma told Cortes, “Our lord, you are weary. The journey has tired you, but now you have arrived on earth… to sit on your throne, under its canopy.'; This was due to the fact that the Aztec religion told of a god, Quetzalcoatl, who would come from the heavens and take his place as ruler of the Aztec Empire. Thus Motecuhzoma showered the Spaniards with many fine gifts. Unlike the Spaniards believed, these fine gifts were not really a sign of Aztec submission but rather as a sign of wealth and power. In order to give proper respect to their so-called god, the Aztecs had to show that they were a worthy and powerful nation. The Spaniards took this as a weakness. They thought the Aztecs feared them, which boosted up their confidence level even though they were gre atly outnumbered. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Spaniards had to communicate with the Aztecs by using La Malinche as an interpreter. She basically made the Aztecs believe that Cortes was a good man and would be cause them no harm. They also had other indigenous people who were allied with the Spanish. The Aztecs must have viewed this as a sign that these strangers would be peaceful since they had others of their kind on the Spaniard’s side. La Malinche translated all that Motecuhzoma had said to Cortes. On page sixty-four of The Broken Spears it says, “Cortes replied in his strange and savage tongue…'; In other passages in the book it depicts the Spaniards as wild and uncivilized. This brings up another point that just as the Spaniards thought of the Aztecs as being barbaric, some Aztecs felt the same way about the Spaniards.
The movement toward legalization of marijuana for medical purposes is based in part on the belief that the substance has beneficial medicinal effects. But there is a lot of debate on this subject. The debate over legalizing medical marijuana centers squarely on the definition of a Schedule I drug and whether cannabis should still be considered as such. The federal prohibition of marijuana was enacted when the Congress passed the Controlled Substances Act in 1970. Marijuana was included in the Ã¢â¬Å"Hallucinogenic SubstancesÃ¢â¬ category as a Schedule I substance, so the sale, purchase, or consumption of marijuana became illegal. Thus the legal status of medical marijuana is determined by whether or not it has an Ã¢â¬Å"accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.Ã¢â¬ (U.S Food and Drug Administration, 2009) Public opinion trends greater towards acceptance for the use of marijuana, while most politicians, including the president continue to oppose the legalization of medical marijuana. While the White House and most politicians continue to oppose the use of marijuana, the vast majority of Americans (77%) believe that doctors should be allowed to prescribe marijuana for serious illnesses. However, full legalization of marijuana enjoys less public support, with a slight majority of Americans (52%) supporting it. Public support for marijuana legalization has grown in recent years, as Ã¢â¬Å"most Americans no longer see marijuana as a Ã¢â¬ËgatewayÃ¢â¬â¢ to more dangerous drugs and most no longer see its use as immoral.Ã¢â¬ Moreover, most Americans believe that the federal governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s enforcement of its marijuana policies Ã¢â¬Å"cost more than they are worth.Ã¢â¬ (Thompson, 2013) Of the 50 states, nearly half of them have already established laws regarding medical ma... ... to six marijuana plants for him. My patient, who had quit using addictive substances after a near-death experience, is back to smoking marijuana daily, along with his caregiver.Ã¢â¬ (Thompson, 2013) Critics of medical cannabis cite its high potential for abuse and the many studies showing its harmful effects on the brain; they also object to the practice of smoking in general as carcinogenic. One response to this criticism has been to develop other methods of administering the drug. The most widespread of these is as inhaling it through a vaporizer, which extracts and heats the active constituents in marijuana without reaching the temperature at which they ignite so that no toxic compounds or irritants are generated. An adequate amount of THC is still delivered into the bloodstream by the vaporization method. (Debate.org, 2013) Being as it is a state-run policy now,
Thursday, July 18, 2019
There are aspects in life that have influenced me to have a better future. To begin that, I have set goals to better my life but it will take hard work and commitment to pursue them. It was not until recently when I have decided to get my life started and pursue the dreams that I have always wanted to have. There are three primarily goals in my life I would like to achieve, my personal, academic and career goals. My personal goal is to have a stable financial. My academic goal is to graduate from college with a 3. GPA. As for my career goal, I would like to become a Registered Nurse. At this point in my life, I have realized that money has been an issue. This fact will lead us to my long-term personal goal which is to have a stable financial. It is very important to have a financial stability just in case of emergency or unexpected expenses. To improve my financial status, my intermediate goal is to have my credit cards debts and my loans paid off in two years from today. By doing that, I have made a short term goal, which is to spend less money that I earn, create a financial budget to help me save and to increase the money I earn by making more hours or possibly invest on something. Slowly, I am doing my best to accumulate money every day now. In order to achieve my academic goal, I will have to break many bad habits and dedicate my life to the grades I want in college. My long term academic goal is to major in Nursing in the year of 2015. Pursuing this goal will help get me started on my career path. My intermediate goal is to graduate from Valencia Community College with an A. S. degree and with at least a 3. 0 GPA or higher within two years. To build my GPA to a 3. 0, I must dedicate my time on studying and showing up in class every day. Before, I wasn't as focused and didn't care about school because I had thought that having fun is better than studying but now, I came to realized how academic will help me better my future and it will pay off. Furthermore, my long-term career goal is to get a job as a Registered Nurse by the time I am 28 years old. I love taking care of people and making sure that they have the care that they need. Registered Nurse is also a high paying job and many states are in high demand in nurses. To follow my long term career goal, I have set a intermediate goal. My intermediate goal is to do internships and/or externships in many medical sites; to get the experiences that I need to become one of the best nurse there is. Volunteering in clinics and hospitals will help me closer to my career path. I would have to send out my resumes and keep pushing myself to the top. In conclusion, setting goals are easy, but pursuing them consists of hard working and dedication. By the time I'm 29 years old, I want to be set in life with my personal, academic and career goals. I will have a steady financial within two years from today, by accumulating money. Majoring in Nursing by the year of 2015 and be a graduate student from Valencia Community College with a 3. 0 GPA or higher is my academic goal. Lastly, my career goal is to be a Registered Nurse by the age of 28. I am ready to live my life. My Goals in Life I have many goals in my life, and I have learned to categorize them into short term, midterm, and long term goals. Doing so helps me keep my focus on what is immediate, and what it takes to make the long-term goals happen. It also allows me to keep my visions clear and in tune to what I want to achieve. Earning my MBA First, I want to earn my Masters in Business Administration degree. I know that this will prepare me for the life I want. More than the title, I want an MBA degree because I know that it will give me the appropriate knowledge that I need to put up my own business in the future. A formal education in business, especially that which is post-graduate, will also give me the proper training. It will be my baptism of fire into the world of business because it will detach me from the school-based business setting and move me into the real business world. Like Odysseus who had been in many adventures and conquests, most of them with complete uncertainty, it is my job to prepare myself to whatever can happen. Odysseus had instances where he hoped for good luck and relied in prayer and it showed how uncertain he and his colleagues were in their adventures. As factual as the story is, luck will sometimes turn towards me or otherwise. I know that I should be prepared no matter what happens. I deem formal education as a step for doing this. Success in business When I have finished my MBA, I can then take steps to make my next dream materialize. I want to be a businessman, managing my own business and giving products or services that people will want to buy. I want to be successful in the initiatives that I will undertake. Because I have all the proper knowledge, I know this is possible. I will study the possibilities well before starting my enterprise. I will think of a venture or merchandise that is incomparable with others. It could be something new like a new product or service, or something that can enhance what people already have. It will really be hard to pinpoint which industry at this time because it will largely depend on what the environment the business sector has at that time. I will then make a comprehensive feasibility study about my chosen field. Like pursuing my MBA, I will treat handling my business like a continuous opportunity for studying. I will give myself the chance to explore the new boundaries in the field that I will choose. I know that this will expand my knowledge and abilities as well as enhance my skills. Like Odysseus who remained true to the things that he envisioned, I should have a can-go attitude at all times. Settling down Success in business is only half of my accomplishments. I also aspire for a complete personal life. I can only achieve this by getting married. I view settling down with the person I love. We shall stay somewhere we both like, and have our own family. Most probably, we will be having children right after we get married. It is my goal to be able to provide for my family. I want to be able to answer all of their needs and, if possible, their wants. I also want to impart in them the lessons I have learned in life and hope that they will apply them in their own convictions. If this happens I am sure that they can lead good and productive lives that they will never even once regret. I know this because I am sure that making the right choices in life will do them good. Interconnection These goals are interconnected. I know that even if they have to happen at different times in my life, not achieving one will greatly affect the way that I can do the others. For instance, when I do not get my MBA I know that I will miss a lot of lessons that can help get my business started. I will likewise find it hard to get my business going. When I do not get successful in my business, it will also be difficult for me to provide for my family. Because this is the way that I want to work and earn a living, if I cannot be successful in my business I will have to struggle or maybe have to work in a company instead of being the boss of my own firm. I know that this will be difficult for me. Yet like Odysseus, I should consider that life is filled with trials. Things will not always go as planned. It takes prayers and actions to get things done, yet even in the times when one prays and acts a lot it is still not possible to achieve something that is not meant to be. People around should also be considered as they can make or break oneÃ¢â¬â¢s dreams. Looking at these teachings from the classic literature, one conclusion comes to mind: we have our goals and we should do every thing that can make them happen, but we should equally be prepared for the diversions that will surely come our way. It is a lesson well learned. My Goals in Life I have many goals in my life, and I have learned to categorize them into short term, midterm, and long term goals. Doing so helps me keep my focus on what is immediate, and what it takes to make the long-term goals happen. It also allows me to keep my visions clear and in tune to what I want to achieve. Earning my MBA First, I want to earn my Masters in Business Administration degree. I know that this will prepare me for the life I want. More than the title, I want an MBA degree because I know that it will give me the appropriate knowledge that I need to put up my own business in the future. A formal education in business, especially that which is post-graduate, will also give me the proper training. It will be my baptism of fire into the world of business because it will detach me from the school-based business setting and move me into the real business world. Like Odysseus who had been in many adventures and conquests, most of them with complete uncertainty, it is my job to prepare myself to whatever can happen. Odysseus had instances where he hoped for good luck and relied in prayer and it showed how uncertain he and his colleagues were in their adventures. As factual as the story is, luck will sometimes turn towards me or otherwise. I know that I should be prepared no matter what happens. I deem formal education as a step for doing this. Success in business When I have finished my MBA, I can then take steps to make my next dream materialize. I want to be a businessman, managing my own business and giving products or services that people will want to buy. I want to be successful in the initiatives that I will undertake. Because I have all the proper knowledge, I know this is possible. I will study the possibilities well before starting my enterprise. I will think of a venture or merchandise that is incomparable with others. It could be something new like a new product or service, or something that can enhance what people already have. It will really be hard to pinpoint which industry at this time because it will largely depend on what the environment the business sector has at that time. I will then make a comprehensive feasibility study about my chosen field. Like pursuing my MBA, I will treat handling my business like a continuous opportunity for studying. I will give myself the chance to explore the new boundaries in the field that I will choose. I know that this will expand my knowledge and abilities as well as enhance my skills. Like Odysseus who remained true to the things that he envisioned, I should have a can-go attitude at all times. Settling down Success in business is only half of my accomplishments. I also aspire for a complete personal life. I can only achieve this by getting married. I view settling down with the person I love. We shall stay somewhere we both like, and have our own family. Most probably, we will be having children right after we get married. It is my goal to be able to provide for my family. I want to be able to answer all of their needs and, if possible, their wants. I also want to impart in them the lessons I have learned in life and hope that they will apply them in their own convictions. If this happens I am sure that they can lead good and productive lives that they will never even once regret. I know this because I am sure that making the right choices in life will do them good. Interconnection These goals are interconnected. I know that even if they have to happen at different times in my life, not achieving one will greatly affect the way that I can do the others. For instance, when I do not get my MBA I know that I will miss a lot of lessons that can help get my business started. I will likewise find it hard to get my business going. When I do not get successful in my business, it will also be difficult for me to provide for my family. Because this is the way that I want to work and earn a living, if I cannot be successful in my business I will have to struggle or maybe have to work in a company instead of being the boss of my own firm. I know that this will be difficult for me. Yet like Odysseus, I should consider that life is filled with trials. Things will not always go as planned. It takes prayers and actions to get things done, yet even in the times when one prays and acts a lot it is still not possible to achieve something that is not meant to be. People around should also be considered as they can make or break oneÃ¢â¬â¢s dreams. Looking at these teachings from the classic literature, one conclusion comes to mind: we have our goals and we should do every thing that can make them happen, but we should equally be prepared for the diversions that will surely come our way. It is a lesson well learned.